Beef Price Per Pound On The Hoof

Picture of Beef Price Per Pound On The Hoof

What is "Natural Young Angus Beef"?Hollin Farms is a three generational family farm near Delaplane, Virginia in northern Fauquier County. Natural Young Angus Beef comes from yearlings that weigh about 700 to 1000 pounds as compared to Industrial feedlot steers which weigh about 1200 pounds. "Natural Beef" is from animals that have received no antibiotics in their feed and have no growth implants. In contrast, almost all beef that you buy in the grocery stores comes from feedlots where the feed is "medicated" with antibiotics and the animals receive estrogen growth implants.

"Natural Beef" is also primarily forage-raised beef (http://eatwild.com), high in healthy Omega-3 fatty acids. Angus is the name of the breed – a black English breed renowned for its beef quality. We also raise Angus/Hereford cross cattle which combine the best of these two breeds with hybrid vigor. We have the same cattle as those in the popular Certified Angus Beef program.The animals are raised on pastures and not in the confined feedlots/industrial systems that provide most American beef (http://www.

pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/meat/industrial). Our young beef are raised to about 450 pounds on grass fields with their mothers. At about eight months old they are weaned and put into grass, clover, or millet fields where they graze "free range" as they are rotated from pasture to pasture. For about six weeks before slaughter, we supplement the grass or hay diet with a few pounds of locally grown corn to help "finish" the animal.

This creates some marbling in the beef and enriches the flavor. This corn is a free choice supplement in the pasture and offered for a much shorter period than the six to nine month period common in industrial feed lot beef. These yearling animals are slaughtered at about 700 to 950 pounds which is 400 to 500 pounds less than the weight of industrially raised cattle. Because they are younger and free-range, the beef is generally leaner than feed-lot, "couch potato" kept cattle.

top of pageIs Hollin Farms Natural Young Angus Beef organic? Hollin Farms beef would qualify as organic except that we supplement the grass diet with a few pounds of locally grown corn or barley during the last two months to help "finish" and marble the beef. The grain is not certified organic. No one grows organic grain in our area, and to import it is costly and fossil fuel dependent.top of pageWhat does Natural Young Angus Beef look like and taste like? The beef from these young free-range animals is generally leaner than the USDA grade "Choice" in the Supermarket.

Because the animals are younger and smaller in size than 1200 pound industrial steers, cuts like steaks are also smaller (same thickness but smaller "area" or diameter). Fat in forage fed animals is higher in healthy Omega-3 fatty acids. The flavor of forage fed beef is like the idea of "terroir" in wine (the flavor of the earth) – in this case, the flavor of the beautiful Crooked Run Valley on the Eastern slope of the Blue Ridge Mountains.

Many people like it better than the exclusively grain fed taste of industrial beef which is uniform and bland.For a good comparison between forage fed and corn fed beef go to the PBS Frontline Modern Meat web site.top of pageHow much will the beef cost me and how can I compare the Hollin price with that of others? We estimate a price of $5.25 per pound for a whole young beef, $5.50 per pound for a half or side, and $5.

75 for a quarter (half of a half) beef for the cut weight (not the hanging weight). This is our price estimate for the beef you take home. This price is for all "cuts" -- T-bone steaks, rib steaks, roasts, hamburger, organs etc -- and includes all slaughter and processing costs.IMPORTANT TO NOTE. Our price is for the "cut weight" --the weight after the beef has dry aged and the butcher has cut out the fat and bones, packaged and frozen it and the price Includes all slaughter cost.

Cut weight is the beef you actually take home. Most farms sell by the hanging or pre cut weight and slaughter is extra. We calculate about a 25% loss from hanging to cut weight. Bear in mind that this estimate is for comparison with supermarket prices. It will vary depending on how you cut your meat.For comparison purposes, our price per pound for a side or half equates to about a $4.15 for hanging weight and about $3.

95 if you order a whole animal)top of pageWhat kind of cuts do I get? What is the percentage of steaks and hamburger?Here are percentages based on the way I cut my beef. These differ with every individual animal, and would change depending on how you cut your beef.* Steaks (Rib, T-bone, Porterhouse, Sirloin, Flank) about 19%.* Roasts (Chuck, Arm, Sirloin Tip) about 17%* Round cuts (Eye Roast, Top Round Steaks, Bottom Round) about 9%* Hamburger (depends on how lean or fat) about 45%.

* Miscellaneous (Short Ribs, Tongue, Liver, etc) about 10%Our cutting questionnaire with suggestions on how to order and cut your beef .The various cuts and where they come from on a side of beef.For information about these cuts and how to cook them.Download the Ohio State Extension service fact sheet Buying Beef for the Freezer .top of pageWill I get raw meaty bones and other treats for my pets?Yes.

Let us know and we can have bones included for your pets. Raw meaty bones are advocated in a pet diet championed by veterinarian Tom Lonsdale. Organs like liver, kidneys, and heart also make healthy treats for dogs and cats. Two books on natural products for pets are "Raw Dog Food Book" and "Natural Nutrition for Dogs and Cats: The Ultimate Diet."top of pageHow much or how little beef can I order?Customers may order a whole, half, or quarter.

On their own, some customers have "cow pooled" and bought a whole or a half beef with friends and neighbors and divided it among themselves. In these cases, one person must pay the entire invoicetop of pageHow much beef in a whole, a side (half) or quarter?Individual animals vary but our estimate on a young beef weighing 800 on the hoof (live weight), is 330 pounds in a whole, 165 pounds in a side, 83 pounds in a quarter (a quarter is not the front or back of a side, but an equally divided side or half).

Remember that this is an average. It will vary with the amount of trimming you require. Animals also vary in size and yield. Some people will get a little more and others a little less.top of pageDo I need a freezer?Yes, or at least a large refrigerator freezer section. The meat is vacuum packed in one to three pound frozen packages. A quarter of a young beef takes up about 3 cubic feet. You will need to bring your own boxes to Gore's when you pick up.

Vacuum packed beef will last several years in a freezer.top of pageWhere do I pick up the beef?We slaughter and process at Gore Custom Meats in Stephens City, Virginia. They will age the beef and cut, package, and freeze the meat, and you can pick up there. Gore Custom Meats provides vacuum packaging as a standard service. You need to bring your own boxes when you pick up the cut and packaged beef.

Directions to Gore Custom Meats.top of pageHow do I pay?To keep expenses down, we use a program where you buy the live animal from Hollin Farm and pay Gore Custom Meats to slaughter and package it in your name. Here is how is works:You will receive two bills. One from us at Hollin Farms for the on-the-hoof or "live" weight price.The other bill is from Gore Custom Meats for slaughter, dressing, cutting and packaging.

For example:Let’s say that you ordered a quarter beef and the live weight of your animal was 800 pounds. The hanging/dress weight of the whole would be about 440 pounds and the final "cut" weight (after dry aging (dehydrating) and after fat and bones are trimmed during packaging) would be about 330 pounds. Your quarter would be about 83 pounds.You would pay Hollin Farms $395 for your quarter beef.

You would pay Gore Custom Meats about $80 for slaughter, aging, cutting, and vacuum packaging. Your total combined cost would be $475 for 83 pounds of beef or about $5.75 per pound.We have less of a markup for an order of a whole or half beef so we estimate combined prices per pound for a whole at about $5.25 and for a half or side at $5.50. Price will vary a few pennies of each side of this bench mark depending on the individual animal and how you cut your beef.

We require a $50 deposit per quarter.Click here to order beef and make a deposit top of pageCan I visit the farm and see the animals?We welcome visitors during the "pick-your-own" seasons. The best times to come are in late May and early June during the strawberry picking season, in July and August when we have pick-your-own peaches, berries and summer vegetables, and in September and October when we have apples, pumpkins and fall vegetables.

We are next to Sky Meadows State Park.top of pageHow do I order? Who do I contact if I have more questions?We require a $50 deposit per quarter animal.Click here to order beef and make a depositWe will contact you and ask you to fill out our Cutting Questionnaire.If you have questions, please e-mail or call Tom Davenport at 540-592-3701 during business hours.top of pageWhen can I expect my beef to be ready?We will be slaughtering several animals per month.

The beef is usually ready for pick up two weeks after slaughter. We will advise via phone or e-mail.top of pageHollin Farms Natural Angus beef is humanely raised and humanely slaughtered. Buyers pick up at the slaughter house, inspect the plant, and get to meet the people who kill and cut their beef. With one exception, the animals are rotationally grazed following the grass fed methods popularized by Joel Salatin of Polyface Farm near Swoope, Virginia.

The exception is the corn or other grain that we give them free-choice in addition to the grass during the last six weeks. This adds flavor and marbling to the beef. Our beef is much cheaper than the "natural" or organic beef in high end supermarkets like Whole Foods and Wegmans.Content Copyright © 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 Hollin Farms LLC

See Also: Gas Prices In Raleigh Nc

For anyone thats thinking of stepping into the enterprise of offering wholesale products at retail costs, the first thing that will come to thoughts is, where do I obtain the wholesale items from? The second consideration might be, which wholesalers or fall shippers am i able to have confidence in?



Absent are the times when males would just have on just about anything they had from the closet. As of late, adult males are only as style conscious as girls, and they're ready to devote revenue to purchase the clothes they like. In fact, a great deal of men choose to order manufacturer name clothing mainly because these are certain to be of good good quality and style. When they should buy branded mens use at wholesale charges, then they will go out and purchase additional of those inexpensive excellent clothes.

For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). An uncooked rib roast Wagyu cattle are an example of a breed raised primarily for beef. Beef as part of a meal with potatoes and spinach Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle. Humans have been eating beef since prehistoric times.[1] Beef is a source of high-quality protein and essential nutrients.[2] Beef skeletal muscle meat can be cut into roasts, short ribs or steak (filet mignon, sirloin steak, rump steak, rib steak, rib eye steak, hanger steak, etc.

). Some cuts are processed (corned beef or beef jerky), and trimmings, usually mixed with meat from older, leaner cattle, are ground, minced or used in sausages. The blood is used in some varieties of blood sausage. Other parts that are eaten include other muscles and offal, such as the oxtail, liver, tongue, tripe from the reticulum or rumen, glands (particularly the pancreas and thymus, referred to as sweetbread), the heart, the brain (although forbidden where there is a danger of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE), the kidneys, and the tender testicles of the bull (known in the United States as calf fries, prairie oysters, or Rocky Mountain oysters).

Some intestines are cooked and eaten as-is, but are more often cleaned and used as natural sausage casings. The bones are used for making beef stock. Beef from steers and heifers is very similar. According to the most recent National Beef Quality Audit, heifer carcasses had slightly more marbling than steer carcasses, but USDA quality grade was not significantly different.[3] Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for breeding varies.

The meat from older bulls is usually tougher, so it is frequently used for mince (known as ground beef in the United States). Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands, or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a feedlot (or concentrated animal feeding operation), where they are usually fed a ration of grain, protein, roughage and a vitamin/mineral preblend.

Beef is the third most widely consumed meat in the world, accounting for about 25% of meat production worldwide, after pork and poultry at 38% and 30% respectively.[4] In absolute numbers, the United States, Brazil, and the People's Republic of China are the world's three largest consumers of beef; Uruguay, however, has the highest beef and veal consumption per capita, followed by Argentina and Brazil.

According to the data from OECD, the average Uruguayan ate over 42 kg (93 lb) of beef or veal in 2014, representing the highest beef/veal consumption per capita in the world. In comparison, the average American consumed only about 24 kg (53 lb) beef or veal in the same year, while African countries, such as Mozambique, Ghana, and Nigeria, consumed the least beef or veal per capita. Cows are considered sacred in the Hinduism and most observant Hindus who do eat meat almost always abstain from beef.

In 2015, the world's largest exporters of beef, (including buffalo meat), were India (buffalo meat only), Brazil and Australia.[5][6] Beef production is also important to the economies of Uruguay, Canada, Paraguay, Mexico, Argentina, Belarus and Nicaragua. Etymology The word beef is from the Latin bōs,[7] in contrast to cow which is from Middle English cou (both words have the same Indo-European root *gʷou-).

[8] After the Norman Conquest, the French-speaking nobles who ruled England naturally used French words to refer to the meats they were served. Thus, various Anglo-Saxon words were used for the animal (such as nēat, or cu for adult females) by the peasants, but the meat was called boef (ox) (Modern French bœuf) by the French nobles — who did not often deal with the live animal — when it was served to them.

This is one example of the common English dichotomy between the words for animals (with largely Germanic origins) and their meat (with Romanic origins) that is also found in such English word-pairs as pig/pork, deer/venison, sheep/mutton and chicken/poultry.[9]Beef is cognate with bovine through the Late Latin bovīnus.[10] History People have eaten the flesh of bovines from prehistoric times; some of the earliest known cave paintings, such as those of Lascaux, show aurochs in hunting scenes.

People domesticated cattle around 8000 BC to provide ready access to beef, milk, and leather.[11] Most cattle originated in the Old World, with the exception of bison hybrids, which originated in the Americas. Examples include the Wagyū from Japan, Ankole-Watusi from Egypt, and longhorn Zebu from the Indian subcontinent.[12] It is unknown exactly when people started cooking beef. Cattle were widely used across the Old World as draft animals (oxen), for milk, or specifically for human consumption.

With the mechanization of farming, some breeds were specifically bred to increase meat yield, resulting in Chianina and Charolais cattle, or to improve the texture of meat, giving rise to the Murray Grey, Angus, and Wagyū. Some breeds have been selected for both meat and milk production, such as the Brown Swiss (Braunvieh). In the United States, the growth of the beef business was largely due to expansion in the Southwest.

Upon the acquisition of grasslands through the Mexican–American War of 1848, and later the expulsion of the Plains Indians from this region and the Midwest, the American livestock industry began, starting primarily with the taming of wild longhorn cattle. Chicago and New York City were the first to benefit from these developments in their stockyards and in their meat markets.[13] Farming of beef cattle Beef cattle are raised and fed using a variety of methods, including feedlots, free range, ranching, backgrounding and Intensive animal farming.

Typically, the production of one pound (0.45 kg) of cooked beef requires 27 lb (12 kg) of fodder, over 200 US gal (760 l; 170 imp gal) of water and nearly three hundred square feet (28 m2) of land.[14] Cuts Main article: Cut of beef Beef is first divided into primal cuts, pieces of meat initially separated from the carcass during butchering. These are basic sections from which steaks and other subdivisions are cut.

The term "primal cut" is quite different from "prime cut", used to characterize cuts considered to be of higher quality. Since the animal's legs and neck muscles do the most work, they are the toughest; the meat becomes more tender as distance from hoof and horn increases. Different countries and cuisines have different cuts and names, and sometimes use the same name for a different cut; for example, the cut described as "brisket" in the United States is from a significantly different part of the carcass than British brisket.

Special beef designations Breed and origin based designations Beef rump steak on grill pan, cooked to medium rare Certified Angus Beef (CAB) in Canada and the United States is a specification-based, branded-beef program which was founded in 1978 by Angus cattle producers to increase demand for their breed of cattle, by promoting the impression that Angus cattle have consistent, high-quality beef with superior taste.

The brand is owned by the American Angus Association and its 35,000 rancher members. The terms Angus Beef or Black Angus Beef are loosely and commonly misused or confused with CAB; this is especially common in the food service industry. The brand or name Certified Angus Beef cannot be legally used by an establishment that is not licensed to do so. In the UK the equivalent is Aberdeen Angus, marketed as higher quality and associated with stricter animal welfare rules.

Notable for the herd being free of BSE during the BSE epidemic in the UK. Similar schemes are used elsewhere as in Certified Angus Beef in Ireland.[15] Certified Hereford Beef is beef certified to have come from Hereford cattle. Kobe beef is pure Tajima-gyu breed bull, that was born, raised, and slaughtered solely within the Hyogo prefecture. Very limited amounts of Kobe are exported.[16] The EU recognizes the following Protected Designation of Origin beef brands:[17] Spain – Carne de Ávila, Carne de Cantabria, Carne de la Sierra de Guadarrama, Carne de Morucha de Salamanca, Carne de Vacuno del País o Euskal Okela, Ternera Galega France – Taureau de Camargue, Boeuf charolais du Bourbonnais, Boeuf de Chalosse, Boeuf du Maine Portugal – Carne Alentejana, Carne Arouquesa, Carne Barrosã, Carne Cachena da Peneda, Carne da Charneca, Carne de Bovino Cruzado dos Lameiros do Barroso, Carne dos Açores, Carne Marinhoa, Carne Maronesa, Carne Mertolenga, Carne Mirandesa United Kingdom – Orkney Beef, Scotch Beef, Welsh Beef Belgium – Belgian Blue Process based designations Some certifications are based upon the way the cattle are treated fed and or slaughtered.

Grass-fed beef cattle have been raised exclusively on forage. Grain-fed beef cattle are raised primarily on forage, but are "finished" in a feedlot. Halal beef has been certified to have been processed in a prescribed manner in accordance with Muslim dietary laws.[18] Kosher beef has been certified to have been processed in a prescribed manner in accordance with Jewish dietary laws. Organic beef is produced without added hormones, pesticides, or other chemicals, though requirements for labeling it organic vary widely.

Output based standards Some standards are based upon the inspected quality of the meat after slaughter. Beef grading Countries regulate the marketing and sale of Beef by observing criteria post slaughter and classifying the observed quality of the meat. This classification, sometimes optional, can suggest a market demand for a particular animal's attributes and therefore the price owed to the producer.

See also: Beef carcass classification and Food grading Aging and tenderization Main article: Beef aging Further information: Meat § Conditioning, Meat preservation, and Meat tenderness To improve tenderness of beef, it is often aged (i.e., stored refrigerated) to allow endogenous proteolytic enzymes to weaken structural and myofibrillar proteins. Wet aging is accomplished using vacuum packaging to reduce spoilage and yield loss.

Dry aging involves hanging primals (usually ribs or loins) in humidity-controlled coolers. Outer surfaces dry out and can support growth of molds (and spoilage bacteria, if too humid), resulting in trim and evaporative losses. Evaporation concentrates the remaining proteins and increases flavor intensity; the molds can contribute a nut-like flavor. After two to three days there are significant effects.

The majority of the tenderizing effect occurs in the first 10 days. Boxed beef, stored and distributed in vacuum packaging, is, in effect, wet aged during distribution. Premium steakhouses dry age for 21 to 28 days or wet age up to 45 days for maximum effect on flavor and tenderness. Meat from less tender cuts or older cattle can be mechanically tenderized by forcing small, sharp blades through the cuts to disrupt the proteins.

Also, solutions of exogenous proteolytic enzymes (papain, bromelin or ficin) can be injected to augment the endogenous enzymes. Similarly, solutions of salt and sodium phosphates can be injected to soften and swell the myofibrillar proteins. This improves juiciness and tenderness. Salt can improve the flavor, but phosphate can contribute a soapy flavor. Cooking and preparation Cooked ground beef.

These methods are applicable to all types of meat and some other foodstuffs. Dry heat Roast beef cooked under high heat Method Description Grilling is cooking the beef over or under a high radiant heat source, generally in excess of 340 °C (650 °F). This leads to searing of the surface of the beef, which creates a flavorsome crust. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, the UK, Germany and The Netherlands, grilling, particularly over charcoal, is sometimes known as barbecuing, often shortened to "BBQ".

When cooked over charcoal, this method can also be called charbroiling. Barbecue refers to a technique of cooking that involves cooking meat for long periods of time at low temperatures with smoke from a wood fire. Broiling is a term used in North America. It is similar to grilling, but with the heat source always above the meat. Elsewhere this is considered a way of grilling. Griddle Meat may be cooked on a hot metal griddle.

A little oil or fat may be added to inhibit sticking; the dividing line when the method becomes shallow frying is not well-defined. Roasting is a way of cooking meat in a hot oven, producing roast beef. Liquid is not usually added; the beef may be basted by fat on the top, or by spooning hot fat from the oven pan over the top. A gravy may be made from the cooking juices, after skimming off excess fat.

Roasting is suitable for thicker pieces of meat; the other methods listed are usually for steaks and similar cuts. Internal temperature Main article: Doneness Beef can be cooked to various degrees, from very rare to well done. The degree of cooking corresponds to the temperature in the approximate center of the meat, which can be measured with a meat thermometer. Beef can be cooked using the sous-vide method, which cooks the entire steak to the same temperature, but when cooked using a method such as broiling or roasting it is typically cooked such that it has a "bulls eye" of doneness, with the least done (coolest) at the center and the most done (warmest) at the outside.

Frying Meat can be cooked in boiling oil, typically by shallow frying, although deep frying may be used, often for meat enrobed with breadcrumbs as in milanesas. Larger pieces such as steaks may be cooked this way, or meat may be cut smaller as in stir frying, typically an Asian way of cooking: cooking oil with flavorings such as garlic, ginger and onions is put in a very hot wok. Then small pieces of meat are added, followed by ingredients which cook more quickly, such as mixed vegetables.

The dish is ready when the ingredients are 'just cooked'. Moist heat Moist heat cooking methods include braising, pot roasting, stewing and sous-vide. These techniques are often used for cuts of beef that are tougher, as these longer, lower-temperature cooking methods have time to dissolve connecting tissue which otherwise makes meat remain tough after cooking. Stewing or simmering simmering meat, whole or cut into bite-size pieces, in a water-based liquid with flavorings.

This technique may be used as part of pressure cooking. Braising cooking meats, in a covered container, with small amounts of liquids (usually seasoned or flavored). Unlike stewing, braised meat is not fully immersed in liquid, and usually is browned before the oven step. Sous-vide Sous-vide, French for "under vacuum", is a method of cooking food sealed in airtight plastic bags in a water bath for a long time—72 hours is not unknown—at an accurately determined temperature much lower than normally used for other types of cooking.

The intention is to maintain the integrity of ingredients and achieve very precise control of cooking. Although water is used in the method, only moisture in or added to the food bags is in contact with the food. Beef roasted with vinegar and sliced with spiced paste, often called "cold beef". Meat has usually been cooked in water which is just simmering, such as in stewing; higher temperatures make meat tougher by causing the proteins to contract.

Since thermostatic temperature control became available, cooking at temperatures well below boiling, 52 °C (126 °F) (sous-vide) to 90 °C (194 °F) (slow cooking), for prolonged periods has become possible; this is just hot enough to convert the tough collagen in connective tissue into gelatin through hydrolysis, with minimal toughening. With the adequate combination of temperature and cooking time, pathogens, such as bacteria will be killed, and pasteurization can be achieved.

Because browning (Maillard reactions) can only occur at higher temperatures (above the boiling point of water), these moist techniques do not develop the flavors associated with browning. Meat will often undergo searing in a very hot pan, grilling or browning with a torch before moist cooking (though sometimes after). Thermostatically controlled methods, such as sous-vide, can also prevent overcooking by bringing the meat to the exact degree of doneness desired, and holding it at that temperature indefinitely.

The combination of precise temperature control and long cooking duration makes it possible to be assured that pasteurization has been achieved, both on the surface and the interior of even very thick cuts of meat, which can not be assured with most other cooking techniques. (Although extremely long-duration cooking can break down the texture of the meat to an undesirable degree.) Beef can be cooked quickly at the table through several techniques.

In hot pot cooking, such as shabu-shabu, very thinly sliced meat is cooked by the diners at the table by immersing it in a heated pot of water or stock with vegetables. In fondue bourguignonne, diners dip small pieces of beef into a pot of hot oil at the table. Both techniques typically feature accompanying flavorful sauces to complement the meat. Raw beef Sliced beef Steak tartare is a French dish made from finely chopped or ground (minced) raw meat (often beef).

More accurately, it is scraped so as not to let even the slightest of the sinew fat get into the scraped meat. It is often served with onions, capers, seasonings such as fresh ground pepper and Worcestershire sauce, and sometimes raw egg yolk. The Belgian or Dutch dish filet américain is also made of finely chopped ground beef, though it is seasoned differently, and either eaten as a main dish or can be used as a dressing for a sandwich.

Kibbeh nayyeh is a similar Lebanese and Syrian dish. And in Ethiopia, a ground raw meat dish called tire siga or kitfo is eaten (upon availability). Carpaccio of beef is a thin slice of raw beef dressed with olive oil, lemon juice and seasoning. Often, the beef is partially frozen before slicing to allow very thin slices to be cut. Yukhoe is a variety of hoe, raw dishes in Korean cuisine which is usually made from raw ground beef seasoned with various spices or sauces.

The beef part used for yukhoe is tender rump steak. For the seasoning, soy sauce, sugar, salt, sesame oil, green onion, and ground garlic, sesame seed, black pepper and juice of bae (Korean pear) are used. The beef is mostly topped with the yolk of a raw egg. Cured, smoked, and dried beef Beef curry in Dhaka, Bangladesh Bresaola is an air-dried, salted beef that has been aged about two to three months until it becomes hard and a dark red, almost purple, colour.

It is lean, has a sweet, musty smell and is tender. It originated in Valtellina, a valley in the Alps of northern Italy's Lombardy region. Bündnerfleisch is a similar product from neighbouring Switzerland. Chipped beef is an American industrially produced air-dried beef product, described by one of its manufacturers as being "similar to bresaola, but not as tasty."[19] Beef jerky is dried, salted, smoked beef popular in the United States.

Biltong is a cured, salted, air dried beef popular in South Africa. Pastrami is often made from beef; raw beef is salted, then partly dried and seasoned with various herbs and spices, and smoked. Corned beef is a cut of beef cured or pickled in a seasoned brine. The corn in corned beef refers to the grains of coarse salts (known as corns) used to cure it. The term corned beef can denote different styles of brine-cured beef, depending on the region.

Some, like American-style corned beef, are highly seasoned and often considered delicatessen fare. Spiced beef is a cured and salted joint of round, topside, or silverside, traditionally served at Christmas in Ireland. It is a form of salt beef, cured with spices and saltpetre, intended to be boiled or broiled in Guinness or a similar stout, and then optionally roasted for a period after.[20] There are various other recipes for pickled beef.

Sauerbraten is a German variant. Religious prohibitions Main article: Cattle in religion A pamphlet protesting against the Muslim practice of beef-eating. The propagandist's equate the Muslim's to the demon in the far right and the sacred cow as Kamadhenu. The was ran by the Ravi Varma Press (c. 1912). Most Hindus consider killing cattle and eating beef a sin. However, they do not consider the cow to be a god and they do not worship it.

Bovines has a sacred status in India especially cow, from the idealization due to they provide sustenance for families. Bovines are generally considered to be an integral to the landscape. India as a developing country, many of its rural areas economy depend upon cattle farming, hence they have been revered in the society.[21][22] From vedic periods role of cattle, especially cows, as a source of milk, and dairy products, and their relative importance in transport services and farming like ploughing, row planting, ridging, weeding, etc.

made people to revere the importance of cow in their daily lives, and this rose with the advent of Jainism and Gupta period.[23] Lack of secular tolerance and caste politics has also given birth to Hindu right-wing vigilante cow protection groups. Conflicts over cow slaughter often have sparked religious riots that has lead to loss of human life and in a 1893 riot alone, more than 100 people were killed for the cause.

[24] A. N. Bose in Social and Rural Economy of Northern India says any taboo or the cow worship itself is a relatively recent development in India. The sacred white Cow is considered as the adobe of 33 crore Hindu Deities. Products of Cow's milk like curd, butter, cheese, milk sweets are sold commercially and used in ritualistic purposes. Other animals that Hindus consider sacred are, the monkey (Hanuman), the elephant and rat (Ganesha), the tiger (Durga).

For religious reasons the ancient Egyptian priests also refrained from consuming beef. Buddhists and Sikhs are also against wrongful slaughtering of animals but they don't have a wrongful eating doctrine.[25] During the season of Lent, Orthodox Christians give up all meat and poultry (as well as dairy products and eggs) as a religious act. Observant Jews[26] and Muslims may not eat any meat or poultry which has not been slaughtered and treated in conformance with religious laws.

Legal prohibition India Main article: Cattle slaughter in India India is one of the biggest exporters of beef. Though some states of India impose various types of prohibition on beef prompted by religious aspects that are fueled by Caste And Religion based Politics.[27][28][29][30][31] Hindu religious scripts do not condemn consumption of beef and experts conclude so, however certain Hindu castes and sects avoid beef from their diets.

[32][33] In 2017, a rule against the slaughter of cattle and the eating of beef was signed into law by presidential assent as a modified version of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. Though the original act permits the humane slaughter of animals for food.[34][35] Existing meat export policy in India prohibits the export of beef (meat of cow, oxen and calf). Bone in meat, carcass, half carcass of buffalo is also prohibited and is not permitted to be exported.

Only the boneless meat of buffalo, meat of goat and sheep and birds is permitted for export.[36][37] In 2017 India sought a total "beef ban" and Australian market analysts predicted that with the total ban of beef product export from India there would be market opportunities for leather traders and meat producers. They estimate there would be a twenty per cent shortage of beef and thirteen per cent shortage of leather in the world market.

[38] Cuba In 2003, Cuba banned cow slaughter due to severe shortage of milk and milk products.[39] Nutrition and health Ground Beef 15% fat, broiled Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 1,047 kJ (250 kcal) Carbohydrates 0 g Starch 0 g Dietary fiber 0 g Fat 15 g Saturated 5.887 g Monounsaturated 6.662 g Polyunsaturated 0.485 g Protein 26 g Vitamins Thiamine (B1) (4%) 0.046 mg Riboflavin (B2) (15%) 0.

176 mg Niacin (B3) (36%) 5.378 mg Vitamin B6 (29%) 0.383 mg Folate (B9) (2%) 9 μg Vitamin B12 (110%) 2.64 μg Choline (17%) 82.4 mg Vitamin D (1%) 7 IU Vitamin E (3%) 0.45 mg Vitamin K (1%) 1.2 μg Minerals Calcium (2%) 18 mg Copper (43%) 0.85 mg Iron (20%) 2.6 mg Magnesium (6%) 21 mg Manganese (1%) 0.012 mg Phosphorus (28%) 198 mg Potassium (7%) 318 mg Selenium (31%) 21.6 μg Sodium (5%) 72 mg Zinc (66%) 6.

31 mg Other constituents Water 58 g Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.Source: USDA Nutrient Database Beef is a source of complete protein and it is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, iron, phosphorus and zinc.[40] Red meat is the most significant dietary source of carnitine and, like any other meat (pork, fish, veal, lamb etc.

), is a source of creatine. Creatine is converted to creatinine during cooking.[41] Health concerns See also: Red meat § Human health Cancer Excessive consumption of red processed meat is known to increase the risk of bowel cancer and some other cancers.[42][43][44] Cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease The Harvard School of Public Health recommends consumers eat red meat sparingly as it has high levels of undesirable saturated fat.

[45] This recommendation is not without controversy, though. Another study from The Harvard School of Public Health appearing in Circulation (journal) found "Consumption of processed meats, but not red meats, is associated with higher incidence of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus."[46] This finding tended to confirm an earlier meta-analysis of the nutritional effects of saturated fat in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition which found "[P]rospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease.

More data are needed to elucidate whether cardiovascular disease risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat."[47] Dioxins Some cattle raised in the United States feed on pastures fertilized with sewage sludge. Elevated dioxins may be present in meat from these cattle.[48] Recalls Ground beef has been subject to recalls in the United States, due to Escherichia coli (E.

coli) contamination: January 2011, One Great Burger expands recall.[49] February 2011, American Food Service, a Pico Rivera, Calif. establishment, is recalling approximately 3,170 pounds (1,440 kg) of fresh ground beef patties and other bulk packages of ground beef products that may be contaminated with E. coli O157:H7.[50] March 2011, 14,000 pounds (6,400 kg) beef recalled by Creekstone Farms Premium Beef due to E.

coli concerns.[51] April 2011, National Beef Packaging recalled more than 60,000 pounds (27,000 kg) of ground beef due to E. coli contamination.[52] May 2011, Irish Hills Meat Company of Michigan, a Tipton, Mich., establishment is recalling approximately 900 pounds (410 kg) of ground beef products that may be contaminated with E. coli O157:H7.[53] September 2011, Tyson Fresh Meats recalled 131,100 pounds (59,500 kg) of ground beef due to E.

coli contamination.[54] December 2011, Tyson Fresh Meats recalled 40,000 pounds (18,000 kg) of ground beef due to E. coli contamination.[55] January 2012, Hannaford Supermarkets recalled all ground beef with sell by dates 17 December 2011 or earlier.[56] September 2012, XL Foods recalled more than 1800 products believed to be contaminated with E. coli 0157:H7. The recalled products were produced at the company's plant in Brooks, Alberta, Canada; this was the largest recall of its kind in Canadian History.

Mad cow disease Main article: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy In 1984, the use of meat and bone meal in cattle feed resulted in the world's first outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or, colloquially, mad cow disease) in the United Kingdom.[57] Since then, other countries have had outbreaks of BSE: In May 2003, after a cow with BSE was discovered in Alberta, Canada, the American border was closed to live Canadian cattle, but was reopened in early 2005.

[58] In June 2005 Dr. John Clifford, chief veterinary officer for the United States Department of Agriculture animal health inspection service, confirmed a fully domestic case of BSE in Texas. Clifford would not identify the ranch, calling that "privileged information."[59] The 12-year-old animal was alive at the time when Oprah Winfrey raised concerns about cannibalistic feeding practices on her show[60] which aired 16 April 1996.

In 2010, the EU, through the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), proposed a roadmap to gradually lift the restrictions on the feed ban.[61] EU Regulation No 999/2001 had outlined a complete ban on feeding mammal-based products to cattle.[62] A regulation that modified Annex IV of 999/2001, was published in 2013 that allowed for certain milk, fish, eggs, and plant-fed farm animal products to be used.

[63] World producers Top 5 cattle and beef exporting countries – 2016 Beef exports, including buffalo meat, in metric tons(2016)[64] Rank Country 2015  %of the World 1 Brazil 1,850,000 19.60% 1 India 1,850,000 19.60% 3 Australia 1,385,000 14.67% 4 United States 1,120,000 11.87% 5 New Zealand 580,000 6.14% Top 10 cattle and beef producing countries (2009,2010) [65] Beef production (1000 Metric Tons CWE) (2009) Rank Country 2009 2010  %Chg 1 United States 11,889 11,789 −0.

8% 2 Brazil 8,935 9,300 4% 3 EU-27 7,970 7,920 −0.6% 4 China 5,764 5,550 −4% 5 Argentina 3,400 2,800 −18% 6 India 2,610 2,760 6% 7 Australia 2,100 2,075 −1% 8 Mexico 1,700 1,735 2% 9 Russia 1,285 1,260 −2% 10 Pakistan 1,226 1,250 2% National cattle herds (Per 1000 Head) Rank Country 2009 2010  %Chg 1 India 57,960 58,300 0.6% 2 Brazil 49,150 49,400 0.5% 3 China 42,572 41,000 −4% 4 United States 35,819 35,300 −1.

4% 5 EU-27 30,400 30,150 −0.8% 6 Argentina 12,300 13,200 7% 7 Australia 9,213 10,158 10% 8 Russia 7,010 6,970 −0.6% 9 Mexico 6,775 6,797 0.3% 10 Colombia 5,675 5,675 0.0% See also Argentine beef Beef Australia Beef hormone controversy Carnism Entrecôte List of beef dishes List of meat animals Pink slime References ^ Piatti-Farnell, Lorna (2013). Beef: A Global History. London: Reaktion Books.

p. 7. ISBN 1780231172 – via EBL Reader. In prehistoric times, our ancestors were known to have hunted aurochs, a type of wild—and rather ferocious—cattle that were the ancestor to modern livestock. ^ Oh, Mirae; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Tang, Yujiao (2016). "Chemical compositions, free amino acid contents and antioxidant activities of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef by cut". Meat Science.

119: 16–21. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.04.016. PMID 27115864 – via Science Direct. Beef is one of the main animal food resources providing high-quality protein and essential nutrients, including essential amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins, for human consumption. ^ Schweihofer, Jeannine and Buskirk, Dan (10 April 2014) Do steers or heifers produce better beef?. Michigan State University.

^ Raloff, Janet (31 May 2003). Food for Thought: Global Food Trends. Science News. ^ Beef and Veal Meat Exports by Country in 1000 MT CWE. 25 March 2013 ^ Raghavan, TCA Sharad (10 August 2015). "India on top in exporting beef". The Hindu. India. Retrieved 7 October 2016. ^ Harper, Douglas. "beef". Online Etymology Dictionary. ^ "Beef". The Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia. Thefreedictionary.

com. Retrieved 18 December 2011. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000: beef. ^ "Beef". The American Heritage College Dictionary, 4th ed. ^ "Late Neolithic megalithic structures at Nabta Playa". Archived from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2008. ^ "History of Cattle Breeds". Archived from the original on 27 April 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2007.

^ Horowitz, Roger (2006). Putting Meat on the American Table: Taste, Technology, Transformation. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801882419. ^ Foster, Tom. (18 November 2013) Can Artificial Meat Save The World?. Popsci.com. Retrieved on 19 December 2016. ^ "Certified Angus Beef in Ireland". Angus producer group. Retrieved 2 March 2014. ^ "Exported Beef". Kobe Beef Marketing & Distribution Promotion Association.

Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. ^ "Protected Designation of Origin (PDO)/Protected Geographical Indication (PGI)". European Commission — Agriculture and Rural Development. Archived from the original on 18 August 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2007. ^ "Is a Halal food market boom on its way?". Retrieved 3 October 2013. ^ "Dried Beef Products". Hormel. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007.

Retrieved 3 September 2008. ^ Recipe for traditional dry spiced beef – An Bord Bia ^ "Holy Cows: Hinduism's Blessed Bovines". Hinduism.about.com. Retrieved 2 March 2014. ^ "Switzerland loves its cows. But unlike India, there is no merging of the bovine and divine". The Wire. Retrieved 2 April 2017. ^ Chatterjee, Suhas (1998). Indian Civilization and Culture. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 232. ISBN 978-81-7533-083-2.

^ http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/the-cow-keepers-the-cattle-vigilante-groups-operating-in-delhi-and-neighbouring-states/ ^ Kenneth F. Kiple (30 April 2007). A Movable Feast: Ten Millennia of Food Globalization. Cambridge University Press. pp. 53+. ISBN 978-1-139-46354-6. ^ Maimonodies, Yad Hachazaka; Kedusha; Hilchos Shechita 1:1 ^ http://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/current-affairs/280517/milking-beef-issue-could-tear-social-fabric.

html ^ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/05/muslim-man-dies-in-india-after-attack-by-hindu-cow-protectors ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-37336050 ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/protests-against-the-governments-anti-beef-laws-spread-in-india/2017/06/05/8aa05dfc-489e-11e7-bcde-624ad94170ab_story.html ^ http://www.independent.ie/business/farming/beef/holy-cow-worlds-2ndlargest-beef-exporter-may-ban-cattle-slaughter-35782142.

html ^ http://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-holiness-of-the-cow-and-controversy-over-beef-eating-in-ancient-india/ ^ http://www.thehindu.com/2001/08/14/stories/13140833.htm ^ Prashad, Vijay. "A political stampede over India's sacred cow". Retrieved 4 March 2017. ^ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/beef-ban-and-bloodshed/1/493111.html ^ "Buffalo meat exports at over Rs 21K cr in 10 mths in FY'17".

^ "Nirmala slams Akhilesh, says beef exports already banned". ^ http://www.abc.net.au/news/rural/2017-05-30/indian-government-bans-sale-of-cattle-for-slaughter/8572964 ^ Cuba bans cow slaughter. Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com (13 September 2003). Retrieved on 19 December 2016. ^ "Beef, lean organic". WHFoods. 18 October 2004. Retrieved 18 December 2011. ^ "Eating Cooked Meat Can Distort CKD Stage in Diabetes".

Retrieved 3 October 2013. ^ "Bowel cancer risk factors". Cancer Research UK. 17 December 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2016. ^ American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-9722522-2-5. ^ Xue XJ, Gao Q, Qiao JH, Zhang J, Xu CP, Liu J (2014). "Red and processed meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of 33 published studies".

Int J Clin Exp Med (Meta-analysis). 7 (6): 1542–53. PMC 4100964 . PMID 25035778. ^ "Harvard School of Public Health – Healthy Eating Pyramid". Hsph.harvard.edu. 14 September 2011. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2011. ^ Micha, R.; Wallace, S. K.; Mozaffarian, D. (2010). "Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Risk of Incident Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis".

Circulation. 121 (21): 2271–83. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.924977. PMC 2885952 . PMID 20479151. ^ Siri-Tarino, P. W.; Sun, Q.; Hu, F. B.; Krauss, R. M. (2010). "Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 91 (3): 535–546. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725. PMC 2824152 . PMID 20071648.

^ "USDA Emerging Issues" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2012. ^ Cochran, Catherine (14 January 2011). "One Great Burger expands ground beef recall". USDA.gov. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. ^ McIntire, Richard J. (5 February 2011). "California firm recalls ground beef". USDA.gov. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. ^ "Kansas City firm recalls beef products".

CNN. 10 March 2011. ^ Warner, Jennifer (15 August 2011). "E. coli in Southeastern US". WebMD. ^ Lindenberger, Joan (31 May 2011). "Michigan firm recalls ground beef". USDA.gov. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. ^ "Tyson recalls beef over E. coli concerns". Reuters. 28 September 2011. ^ "Tyson recalls beef due to E. coli contamination". The Wall Street Journal. 16 December 2011. ^ "Hannaford Supermarket recalls hamburger".

wickedlocal.com. 7 January 2012. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. ^ "Timeline: BSE and vCJD". NewScientist.com news service. 13 December 2004. Retrieved 10 August 2007. ^ Fletcher, Anthony (4 May 2005). "Canadian beef industry loses patience over border dispute". Foodproductiondaily.com. Retrieved 18 December 2011. ^ Mcneil, Donald G. (30 June 2005). "reported Case of Mad Cow in Texas Is First to Originate in U.

S". The New York Times. ^ "Oprah transcript from recording 15 April 1996". Mcspotlight.org. 15 April 1996. Retrieved 18 December 2011. ^ "Food and Feed Safety, TSE/BSE". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2015. ^ "Regulation No 999/2001". EU. 22 May 2001. Retrieved 28 September 2015. ^ "EU Commission Regulation No 56/2013". EU Commission. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2015.

^ http://beef2live.com/story-world-beef-exports-ranking-countries-0-106903 ^ Daily Livestock Report – Vol. 8, No. 126/ 30 June 2010 External links Find more aboutBeefat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Beef at Wikibook Cookbooks USDA beef grading standards (PDF) Nutrition Facts for Various Cuts of Beef Many different meat cut charts The Story of Beef in Nebraska, the Beef State with videos, history, life cycle, issues, and culture Beef State Documentary produced by Nebraska Educational Telecommunications v t e Beef and veal Production Argentine beef Beef cattle Cow-calf operation Feeder cattle Kobe beef Organic beef Products Cuts Blade steak Brisket Chateaubriand steak Chuck steak Fajita Filet mignon Flank steak Flap steak Hanger steak Plate Ranch steak Restructured steak Rib eye Rib steak Round Rump Short loin Short ribs Shoulder tender Sirloin Top sirloin Skirt steak Spare ribs Standing rib roast Strip Shank T-bone Tenderloin Tri-tip Trotters Tail Processed Jerky Aged Bresaola Cabeza Corned beef Frankfurter Rindswurst Ground Montreal smoked Pastrami Meat extract Offal Brain Heart Tongue Tendon Tripas Tripe Testicles Dishes Steak / Beefsteak List of steak dishes Blanquette de veau Beef Wellington Beef bourguignon Beef bun Beef Manhattan Beef noodle soup Beef on weck Beef Stroganoff Boiled beef Bulgogi Calf's liver and bacon Cheesesteak Chicken fried steak Cordon bleu Dendeng Feu French dip Ginger beef Galbi Gored gored Gyūdon Hamburg steak Hortobágyi palacsinta Iga penyet Italian beef Jellied veal Karađorđeva šnicla Kitfo Lanzhou beef lamian London broil Mongolian beef Neobiani Ossobuco Pot roast Pozharsky cutlet P'tcha Ragout fin Rawon Rendang Roast beef Roast beef sandwich Salisbury steak Saltimbocca Sha cha beef Shooter's sandwich Steak and kidney pudding Steak Diane Steak and oyster pie Steak au poivre Tartare Tafelspitz Tongseng Veal Milanese Veal Orloff Veal Oscar Vitello tonnato Wallenbergare Related meats American bison Beefalo Water buffalo Żubroń Other Bovine spongiform encephalopathy Beef hormone controversy Beef ring Carcass grade Darkcutter Meat on the bone Ractopamine - Beef USA beef imports Japan Taiwan South Korea (2008 US beef protest in South Korea) v t e Meat Main articles Entomophagy Fish Game Livestock Meat Poultry Seafood Poultry and game Alligator Chicken Crocodile Duck Goose Grouse Kangaroo Monkey Ostrich Partridge Pheasant Bat Pigeon Quail Rabbit Seal Snake Turkey Turtle Venison Livestock andminilivestock Beef Bison Black soldier fly maggots Camel Cat Crickets Dog Elephant Frog Goat Grasshoppers Guinea pig Horse Lamb and mutton Llama Mealworm Silkworm Mopane worm Palm grub Pork Veal Yak Fish and seafood Abalone Anchovy Basa Bass Calamari Carp Catfish Cod Crab Crappie Crayfish Dolphin Eel Flounder Grouper Haddock Halibut Herring Kingfish Lobster Mackerel Mahi Mahi Marlin Milkfish Mussel Octopus Orange roughy Oyster Pacific saury Perch Pike Pollock Salmon Sardine Scallop Shark Shrimp/prawn Sole Swai Swordfish Tilapia Trout Tuna Sea urchin Walleye Whale Cuts and preparation Aged Bacon Barbecued Braised Burger Charcuterie Chop Corned Cured Cutlet Dried Dum Fillet / Supreme Fried Ham Kebab Liver Luncheon meat Marinated Meatball Meatloaf Offal Pickled Poached Roasted Salt-cured Salumi Sausage Smoked Steak Stewed Tandoor Tartare List articles Beef dishes Chicken dishes Countries by meat consumption Fish dishes Food and drink prohibitions Goat dishes Lamb dishes Meatball dishes Pork dishes Ham dishes Sausage dishes Sausages Seafood dishes Smoked foods Steaks Veal dishes Meat consumption Related subjects Animal rights Bushmeat Butcher Cannibalism Carnism Christian vegetarianism Cultured meat Ethics of eating meat Factory farming Feed conversion ratio Environmental impact of meat production List of meat dishes Meat cutter Meat tenderness Pescetarianism Plant-based diet Preservation Psychology of eating meat Meat paradox Red meat Semi-vegetarianism Slaughter Slaughterhouse Veganism Vegetarianism White meat Authority control LCCN: sh85012809 NDL: 00562737 Retrieved from "https://en.

wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Beef&oldid=814652123"

Hazel Gordon

Saving cash may be the main concern for anyone or retail business, and the easiest method to accomplish this is to find marketing at low cost.