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This article is about the 1962–1964 GT racing car. For the 1984–1986 Group B racing car, see Ferrari 288 GTO. Ferrari 250 GTO Overview Manufacturer Ferrari Production 1962–1964 (39 produced) Designer Giotto BizzarriniSergio Scaglietti Body and chassis Class Sports car Body style 2-door berlinetta Layout FR layout Related 330 LMB250 LM Powertrain Engine 3.0 L Tipo 168 Comp/62 V12 300 PS (220 kW; 300 hp) 4.

0 L V12 Transmission 5-speed Dog-leg manual Dimensions Wheelbase 2,400 mm (94.5 in) Length 4,325 mm (170.3 in) Width 1,600 mm (63.0 in) Height 1,210 mm (47.6 in) Curb weight 880 kg (1,940 lb) Chronology Predecessor Ferrari 250 GT SWB Successor Ferrari 250 LM Model Without Air Intake Covers The Ferrari 250 GTO is a GT car produced by Ferrari from 1962 to 1964 for homologation into the FIA's Group 3 Grand Touring Car category.

It was powered by Ferrari's Tipo 168/62 V12 engine. The "250" in its name denotes the displacement in cubic centimeters of each of its cylinders; "GTO" stands for "Gran Turismo Omologato",[1]Italian for "Grand Touring Homologated." Just 39 250 GTOs were manufactured between 1962 and 1964. This includes 33 cars with 1962-63 bodywork (Series I), three with 1964 (Series II) bodywork similar to the Ferrari 250 LM, and three "330 GTO" specials with a larger engine.

Four of the older 1962-1963 (Series I) cars were updated in 1964 with Series II bodies. When new, the GTO cost $18,000 in the United States, with buyers personally approved by Enzo Ferrari and his dealer for North America, Luigi Chinetti. In May 2012 the 1962 250 GTO made for Stirling Moss set an all-time record selling price of $38,115,000.[2] In October 2013, Connecticut-based collector Paul Pappalardo sold chassis number 5111GT to an unnamed buyer for a new record of around $52 million.

[3] In 2004, Sports Car International placed the 250 GTO eighth on a list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s, and nominated it the top sports car of all time. Similarly, Motor Trend Classic placed the 250 GTO first on a list of the "Greatest Ferraris of All Time."[4]Popular Mechanics named it the "Hottest Car of All Time." [5] Design and development Tipo 168/62 V12 engine The 250 GTO was designed to compete in GT racing, where its rivals would include the Shelby Cobra, Jaguar E-Type and Aston Martin DP214.

[6] The development of the 250 GTO was headed by chief engineer Giotto Bizzarrini. Although Bizzarrini is usually credited as the designer of the 250 GTO, he and most other Ferrari engineers were fired in 1962 due to a dispute with Enzo Ferrari. Further development of the 250 GTO was overseen by new engineer Mauro Forghieri, who worked with Scaglietti to continue development of the body.[7] The design of the car was a collaborative effort and cannot be ascribed to a single person.

The mechanical aspects of 250 GTO were relatively conservative at the time of its introduction, using engine and chassis components that were proven in earlier competition cars. The chassis of the car was based on that of the 250 GT SWB, with minor differences in frame structure and geometry to reduce weight, stiffen and lower the chassis. The car was built around a hand-welded oval tube frame, incorporating A-arm front suspension, rear live-axle with Watt's linkage, disc brakes, and Borrani wire wheels.

The engine was the race-proven Tipo 168/62 Comp. 3.0 L V12 as used in the 250 Testa Rossa Le Mans winner. An all-alloy design utilizing a dry sump and six 38DCN Weber carburetors, it produced approximately 300 horsepower. The gearbox was a new 5-speed unit with Porsche-type synchromesh.[7] Bizzarrini focused his design effort on the car's aerodynamics in an attempt to improve top speed and stability.

The body design was informed by wind tunnel testing at Pisa University as well as road and track testing with several prototypes. The resulting all-aluminium bodywork had a long, low nose, small radiator inlet, and distinctive air intakes on the nose with removable covers. Early testing resulted in the addition of a rear spoiler. The underside of the car was covered by a belly pan and had an additional spoiler underneath formed by the fuel tank cover.

The aerodynamic design of the 250 GTO was a major technical innovation compared to previous Ferrari GT cars, and in line with contemporary developments by manufacturers such as Lotus. The bodies were constructed by Scaglietti, with the exception of early prototypes with bodies constructed in-house by Ferrari or by Pininfarina (in the case of s/n 2643 GT). Cars were produced in many colours, with the most famous being the bright red "Rosso Cina".

[7] The minimalist interior of a 250 GTO reflects the car's racing intentions. There is no speedometer, seats are cloth-upholstered, and neither carpeting nor a headliner was installed. Cockpit ventilation is via exterior air inlets.[7] The exposed metal gate defining the shift pattern became a Ferrari tradition maintained in production models until replaced by steering column-mounted paddle shifters in the 2000s.

[8] Variants and related models Handbuild production, updates, and repairs throughout each car's competition history result in differences both visible and invisible between individual 250 GTOs. Variance in air intake/vent configuration is common among cars. Modifications to the original bodywork were performed by the factory, Scaglietti, or other body shops, usually after crashes or according to a racing team's wishes.

[7] In 1964, Ferrari tasked Mauro Forghieri and Mike Parkes with redesigning the 250 GTO's bodywork. Minor modifications to the engine, gearbox, chassis, and interior were incorporated into a design called the GTO '64 (or Series II) was visually similar to the 250 LM, though without its mid-engined layout. Three cars were produced to this specification, and four earlier 250 GTOs were retrofitted to it by the factory.

[7] Three 330 GTO specials were made using the 250 GTO chassis and body fitted with 400 Superamerica 4.0L motors. Distinguished by a larger bonnet bulge, these cars were used briefly for racing and testing by Scuderia Ferrari before being sold to private customers.[9] The 330 LMB is sometimes considered a GTO variant. These cars used a 4.0L 330 motor and a modified 250 GT Lusso chassis/body. Four were produced in 1963.

Three 275 GTB/C Speciales were built in 1964/65. Despite their origins as competition versions of the 275 GTB, they are sometimes considered developments of the 250 GTO due to similarity of configuration and bodywork.[10] The Ferrari 250 GT SWB Breadvan was a one-off racing car designed for Scuderia Serenissima by Bizzarrini after his departure from Ferrari. It was developed specifically to compete against the then-new 250 GTO.

Although based on the earlier 250 GT SWB, the Breadvan provided an opportunity for Bizzarrini to develop the ideas he had first explored with the GTO, such as lower and more aerodynamic bodywork, incorporation of a dry sump, and radical lightening of the entire car. Racing Model car of Ferrari 250 GTO in scale of 1 : 18 made by CMC FIA regulations in 1962 required at least one hundred examples of a car to be built in order for it to be homologated for Group 3 Grand Touring Car racing.

[11] However, Ferrari built only 39 250 GTOs (33 of the "normal" cars, three with the four-litre 330 engine sometimes called the "330 GTO"—recognizable by the large hump on the bonnet—and three "Type 64" cars, with revised bodywork). Ferrari eluded FIA regulations by numbering its chassis out of sequence, using jumps between each to suggest cars that did not exist.[12] When FIA inspectors appeared to confirm that 100 examples had been built, Enzo Ferrari shuffled the same cars between different locations, thus giving the impression that the full complement of 100 cars was present.

[13] The car debuted at the 12 Hours of Sebring in 1962, driven by American Phil Hill (the Formula One World Driving Champion at the time) and Belgian Olivier Gendebien. Although originally annoyed that they were driving a GT-class car instead of one of the full-race Testa Rossas competing in the prototype class, the experienced pair impressed themselves (and everyone else) by finishing second overall behind the Testa Rossa of Bonnier and Scarfiotti.

Ferrari would go on to win the over 2000cc class of the FIA's International Championship for GT Manufacturers in 1962, 1963, and 1964,[14] the 250 GTO being raced in each of those years. The 250 GTO was one of the last front-engined cars to remain competitive at the top level of sports car racing. Before the advent of vintage racing the 250 GTO, like other racing cars of the period, passed into obsolescence.

Some were used in regional races, while others were used as road cars. Collectibility From the late 1970s to the late 1980s, classic car values rose rapidly and the 250 GTO, touted as the Ferrari that most completely embodies the characteristics of the marque, became the most valuable Ferrari. A 250 GTO (4757GT) belonging to the deceased Robert C. "Chris" Murray, a drug dealer who fled the United States in 1984, was seized by the FBI and sold in a sealed auction in 1987 for approximately $1.

6 million. Murray bought the car in 1982 from a Beverly Hills dealer with $250,000 in cash from a backpack full of $20 and $50 notes.[15] In 1989, at the peak of the boom, a 250 GTO was sold to a Japanese buyer for $14.6 million plus commission.[16] By 1994 that example changed hands for about $3.5 million.[16] In 2008, a British buyer[17] bought a 250 GTO that formerly belonged to Lee Kun-hee of Samsung Electronics[18] at an auction for a record £15.

7 million.[19] In May 2010, BBC Radio 2 DJ Chris Evans bought chassis number 4675 GT for £12 million.[20] According to Octane Magazine, the Ferrari 250 GTO bearing chassis number 5095GT was sold by British real estate agent Jon Hunt to an unknown buyer. It has been disclosed that the buyer was Carlos Hank Rhon of Mexico, a member of one of the most influential families within the PRI ruling party.

In February 2012, in what is believed to be the largest single car transaction in the United Kingdom, a Ferrari 250 GTO sold for over £20 million (approx. US$31.7 million).[21] Scarcity and high prices led to the creation of several replica 250 GTOs on more common Ferrari chassis. Misrepresentations of the original cars, offered for sale at full market value, have been reported.[22] The price development of the GTO, all in US dollars is: 1962–4 (new): $18,500 1965: $4,000[23] 1965 (Dec): $10,500 1968 (Jun): $6,000 1969: $2,500 (Kruse International auction) 1971 (Jan): $9,500 1971 (Mar): $6,000 (Number 3589GT) 1971 (Jul): $12,000 1973 (Jul): $17,500 (£7,000) 1974 (Spring): $28,000 (£12,450) 1975 (Spring): $35,000 (Number 3223GT) 1975 (Dec): $48,000 1978 (Aug): $90,000 (Number 3987GT - Good original condition) 1978 (Sep): $125,000 (Number 3387GT - Concours (perfect) condition) 1980 (Mar): $180,000-200,000 (Number 3445GT - asking price following restoration) 1983: $300,000 1984: $500,000 1985: $650,000 (Number 3987GT)[24] 1986: $1,000,000 (Number 3589GT) 1987 (Oct): $1,600,000 (Number 4757GT) 1997: $2,200,000 1988 (Jul): $4,200,000 (Number 3589GT) 1989 (Jul): $10,000,000 1990 (Jan): $13,000,000 1993: $3,000,000-3,500,000 (Number 4219GT)[25] 1998: $6,000,000 (Number 3729GT)[26] 2000: $7,000,000 (Number 3413GT)[27] 2004: $10,600,000 (Number 3223GT)[28] 2010: $26,000,000 (Number 3943GT)[29] 2012 (May) $38,115,000 (Number 3505GT)[30] 2013 (Oct) $52,000,000 (Number 5111GT)[31] Prices fell substantially during the car market crash of the early 90s, resulting in the most recent lows of $2,700,000 in September 1994, and $2,500,000 in May 1996.

Prices began to climb again in the late 90s. See also Ferrari 250 Ferrari 250 GT SWB Breadvan, a 250 SWB modified by Giotto Bizzarrini and Piero Drogo for Giovanni Volpi, in order to challenge the 250 GTO Notes ^ "Revealed on the new 599 GTO - The fastest ever road-going Ferrari will be unveiled to the public at the Beijing Motor Show". Retrieved 2011-08-19. ^ "Ferrari GTO Becomes Most Expensive Car at $35 Million". Retrieved 2012-06-03. ^ "Ferrari GTO Becomes Most Expensive Car at $52 Million". Retrieved 2013-10-05. ^ "The Greatest Ferraris of All Time - Coupe - Motor Trend Classic". 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2011-08-19. ^ Tate, James. "The 100 Hottest Cars of All Time". Popular Mechanics Magazine. Hearst Men's Group. Retrieved 26 September 2015. ^ Shoen, Michael L. (1990), The Cobra-Ferrari Wars 1963-1965, CFW, ISBN 0-9625093-0-2 ^ a b c d e f Pourret, Jess G.

(1987), Ferrari 250 GT Competition Cars, Haynes, ISBN 0-85429-556-9 ^ Pollard, Tim (11 November 2011), Ferrari click-clack manual transmissions, RIP, Car Magazine ^ Ferrari 330 GTO,, retrieved 6 September 2014 ^ 1964 Ferrari 275 GTB/C Speciale by Scaglietti, RM Auctions, retrieved 6 September 2014 ^ 1962 FIA Regulations Archived 2003-01-04 at Retrieved from on 22 July 2010 ^ "250 GTO Chassis List". Retrieved 2010-05-13. ^ "Do you remember...when Ferrari raced in blue". Retrieved 2015-10-28. ^ Denis Jenkinson, The Automobile Year Book of Sports Car Racing, 1982, page 222 ^ "U.s. Picks Up Quick Cash In Sale Of Rare Ferrari - Chicago Tribune". 1987-11-27. Retrieved 2011-08-19. ^ a b Sheehan, Michael. "When Japan Ruled the World", article reproduced from Sports Car Market, May 2006.

Retrieved on September 4, 2008. ^ "250 GTO s/n 5095GT". Retrieved 2009-07-15. ^ "Wheels - Recession-proof Ferrari fetches $42 million". Archived from the original on 2009-10-03. Retrieved 2009-07-15. ^ "Englishman Pays £15.7 Million for Ferrari 250 GTO", WorldofCars, September 22 2008. Retrieved on September 22, 2008. ^ "1963 Ferrari 250 GTO sold for 17.7 mil USD". 2010-05-14. Retrieved 2010-05-14. ^ "Ferrari 250 GTO sells for more than US$30 million". Gizmag. Retrieved 20 February 2012. ^ Robert Frank (2014-07-31). "A $63 million Ferrari is a fake, expert says". Retrieved 2015-05-20. ^ "Kidston - Arrivederci to Fabrizio Violati". Retrieved 5 October 2014. ^ "The Ups and Downs and Ups of the 250 GTO". Archived from the original on 27 July 2012.

Retrieved 5 October 2014. ^ "250 GTO s/n 4219GT". Retrieved 2015-05-20. ^ "250 GTO s/n 3729GT". Retrieved 2015-05-20. ^ "250 GTO s/n 3413GT". Retrieved 2015-05-20. ^ "250 GTO s/n 3223GT". Retrieved 2015-05-20. ^ "250 GTO s/n 3943GT". Retrieved 2015-05-20. ^ "250 GTO s/n 3505GT". Retrieved 2015-05-20. ^ "1964 Ferrari 250 GTO Sells for Record $52M". Retrieved 5 October 2014. References Buckley, Martin; Chris Rees (1998). World Encyclopedia of Cars: The Definitive Guide to Classic and Contemporary Cars from 1945 to the Present Day. London: Anness Publishing. ISBN 1-84038-083-7. OCLC 40502946. article on Ferrari 250 GTO External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ferrari 250 GTO. 250 GTO Chassis List, with history A gathering of GTOs for the 45th Anniversary celebration v t e Scuderia Ferrari Founder Enzo Ferrari President Sergio Marchionne Team principal Maurizio Arrivabene Current key personnel Loïc Bigois Mattia Binotto Jock Clear Simone Resta Massimo Rivola Lorenzo Sassi 2018 race drivers 5.

Sebastian Vettel 7. Kimi Räikkönen 2018 test and reserve drivers Antonio Giovinazzi Daniil Kvyat Ferrari Driver Academy Giuliano Alesi Marcus Armstrong Enzo Fittipaldi Antonio Fuoco Callum Ilott Charles Leclerc Robert Shwartzman Guanyu Zhou World champions   Alberto Ascari   Juan Manuel Fangio   Mike Hawthorn   Phil Hill   Niki Lauda   Kimi Räikkönen   Jody Scheckter   Michael Schumacher   John Surtees Former drivers See category Drivers' titles: 1952 1953 1956 1958 1961 1964 1975 1977 1979 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2007 Constructors' titles: 1961 1964 1975 1976 1977 1979 1982 1983 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2007 2008 Former personnel James Allison Mario Almondo Luca Badoer Luca Baldisserri John Barnard Ross Brawn Gustav Brunner Rory Byrne Carlo Chiti Gioacchino Colombo Aldo Costa Stefano Domenicali Chris Dyer Alfredo Ferrari Cesare Fiorio Mauro Forghieri Pat Fry Hirohide Hamashima Vittorio Jano Aurelio Lampredi Claudio Lombardi Luca Marmorini Neil Martin Paolo Martinelli Marco Mattiacci Luca Cordero di Montezemolo Marco Piccinini Harvey Postlethwaite Enrique Scalabroni Michael Schumacher Gilles Simon Rob Smedley Nigel Stepney Jean Todt Nicholas Tombazis Formula One cars 125 212 166 275 340 375 500 553 625 555 D50 801 246 246P 156 158 1512 246 F1-66 312 312B 312T 126C 156/85 F1/86 F1/87 640 641 642 643 F92A F93A 412 T1 412 T2 F310 F300 F399 F1-2000 F2001 F2002 F2003-GA F2004 F2005 248 F1 F2007 F2008 F60 F10 150° Italia F2012 F138 F14 T SF15-T SF16-H SF70H IndyCar/CART cars 375 Indy 637 Sports racing cars 166 MM 166 MM Le Mans 195 S 340 America 212 Export 225 S & 250 S 250 MM 340 MM 375 MM 250 Monza 750 Monza 860 Monza 118 LM & 121 LM 410 S 500 TR 625 LM 500 TRC 290 MM 315 S 335 S 250 Testa Rossa Ferrari 250 TR 61 250 GT SWB Sperimentale 250 GTO 330 TRI/LM 330 LMB 250 P, 275 P & 330 P 275 P2, 330 P2 & 365 P2 250 LM 330 P2 330 P3 330 P3/4 & P4 212 E 312 P 512 S & 512 M 312 PB v t e « previous — Ferrari road car timeline, 1960s–1990s — next » Type 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 cylinder Mid-engine berlinetta 308 308 i 308 QV 328 348 360 208 208 Turbo GTB/GTS Turbo F355 Mid-engine 2+2 308 GT4 Mondial 8 Mondial QV Mondial 3.

2 Mondial t 208 GT4 12 cylinder Boxer berlinetta 365 BB 512 BB 512i BB Testarossa 512TR F512 M Grand tourer 250 275 365 GTB/4 "Daytona" 550 Maranello America 330 365 2+2 coupé 250 GT/E 330 GT 2+2 365 GT 2+2 365 GTC/4 365 GT4 2+2 400 400 i 412 456 456M Supercar 250 GTO 250 LM 288 GTO F40 F50      Sold under the Dino marque until 1976; see also Dino car timeline v t e Ferrari Cars Current 488 812 Superfast GTC4Lusso LaFerrari Portofino Past 125 S 159 S 166 Inter 166 S 195 Inter 212 Export 250 250 GT Lusso 250 GTO 268 SP 275 288 GTO 308 GTB/GTS 328 348 330 360 365 365 GT 2+2 365 GTC/4 375 MM 400 456 458 550 575M Maranello 599 612 Scaglietti America Auto Avio Costruzioni 815 Berlinetta Boxer California California T Daytona Enzo GT4 F12berlinetta F355 F40 F50 F430 FF Mondial Testarossa P Concepts Millechili Modulo Mythos P4/5 by Pininfarina Engines Current F140 F154 F160 Past F116/F133 F136 Flat-12 Colombo Dino Lampredi Other Museum Museo Ferrari Museo Casa Enzo Ferrari Related Prancing Horse Enzo Ferrari History Scuderia Ferrari Arno XI Commons Retrieved from "https://en."

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This article is about the automobile manufacturer. For the 2003 biographical film, see Ferrari (film). For other uses, see Ferrari (disambiguation). "Ferraris" redirects here. For the surname, see Ferraris (surname). Ferrari N.V. Native name Ferrari N.V. Type Public Traded as BIT: RACE NYSE: RACE FTSE MIB Component (BIT) Industry Automotive Founded 13 September 1939 in Modena, Italy (as Auto Avio Costruzioni)[1] Founder Enzo Ferrari Headquarters Amsterdam, Netherlands (legal) Maranello, Italy (de facto) Area served Worldwide Key people Sergio Marchionne (Chairman and CEO) Piero Ferrari (Vice Chairman) Products Sports cars Production output 8,014 units (2016) Revenue €3.

105 billion (2016) Operating income €0595 million (2016) Net income €0399 million (2016) Total assets €3.850 billion (2016) Total equity €0325 million (2016) Owners Exor N.V. (22.91%) Piero Ferrari (10.00%) general public (67.09%) Number of employees 3,115 (2016) Subsidiaries Ferrari S.p.A.Scuderia Ferrari Website Footnotes / references[2] Ferrari N.V. (pronounced [ferˈrari]) is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello.

Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 out of Alfa Romeo's race division as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940. However, the company's inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. In 2014, Ferrari was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance.[3] In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, selling in a private transaction for US$38.

1 million to American communications magnate Craig McCaw.[4] Fiat S.p.A. acquired 50% of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90% in 1988.[5] In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S.p.A. from FCA; as of the announcement FCA owned 90% of Ferrari.[6][7][8] The separation began in October 2015 with a restructuring that established Ferrari N.V.

(a company incorporated in the Netherlands) as the new holding company of the Ferrari group and the subsequent sale by FCA of 10% of the shares in an IPO and concurrent listing of common shares on the New York Stock Exchange.[9] Through the remaining steps of the separation, FCA's interest in Ferrari's business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10% continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari.

[10] The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016.[9] Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing, especially in Formula One, where it is the most successful racing team, holding the most constructors championships (16) and having produced the highest number of winning drivers (15).[11] Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed, luxury and wealth.

[12] History Main article: History of Ferrari Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, with headquarters in Modena. Scuderia Ferrari (pronounced [skudeˈriːa]) literally means "Ferrari Stable" and is usually used to mean "Team Ferrari." Ferrari bought, prepared, and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentleman drivers, functioning as the racing division of Alfa Romeo.

In 1933, Alfa Romeo withdrew its in-house racing team and Scuderia Ferrari took over as its works team:[1] the Scuderia received Alfa's Grand Prix cars of the latest specifications and fielded many famous drivers such as Tazio Nuvolari and Achille Varzi. In 1938, Alfa Romeo brought its racing operation again in-house, forming Alfa Corse in Milano and hired Enzo Ferrari as manager of the new racing department; therefore the Scuderia Ferrari was disbanded.

[1] In September 1939, Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years.[1] A few days later he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari.[1] The new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940, Ferrari produced a race car – the Tipo 815, based on a Fiat platform.

It was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943, the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since. The factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. Ferrari 125 S (replica) 166MM Barchetta (replica) The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947 125 S, powered by a 1.

5 L V12 engine;[1] Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built and sold his automobiles to fund Scuderia Ferrari.[13] The Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams. In 1960 the company was restructured as a public corporation under the name SEFAC S.p.A. (Società Esercizio Fabbriche Automobili e Corse).[14] Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50% stake in Ferrari.

An immediate result was an increase in available investment funds, and work started at once on a factory extension intended to transfer production from Fiat's Turin plant of the Ferrari engined Fiat Dino. New model investment further up in the Ferrari range also received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death later that year, and arguably one of the most famous supercars ever made.

In 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S.p.A.[14] From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time, which was introduced and named in honor of the company's founder, Enzo Ferrari. It was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and recurring customers, each of the 399 made (minus the 400th which was donated to the Vatican for charity) had a price tag of $650,000 apiece (equivalent to £400,900).

On 15 September 2012, 964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million- which is equivalent to £99,950,000) attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit and paraded round the Silverstone Circuit setting a world record.[15] Ferrari's former CEO and Chairman, Luca di Montezemolo, resigned from the company after 23 years, who was succeeded by Amedeo Felisa and finally on 3 May 2016 Amedeo resigned and was succeeded by Sergio Marchionne, CEO and Chairman of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ferrari's parent company.

[16] On 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari. The aim is to turn Ferrari into an independent brand which 10% of stake will be sold in an IPO in 2015.[17] Ferrari officially priced its initial public offering at $52 a share after the market close on 20 October 2015.[18] Motorsport For a complete list of Ferrari racing cars, see List of Ferrari competition cars.

Ferrari 312T2 Formula One car driven by Niki Lauda Since the company's beginnings, Ferrari has been involved in motorsport, competing in a range of categories including Formula One and sports car racing through its Scuderia Ferrari sporting division as well as supplying cars and engines to other teams and for one make race series. The 1940 AAC 815 was the first racing car to be designed by Enzo Ferrari, although it was not badged as a Ferrari model.

Scuderia Ferrari Main article: Scuderia Ferrari Scuderia Ferrari has participated in several classes of motorsport, though it is currently only officially involved in Formula One. It is the only team to have competed in the Formula One World Championship continuously since its inception in 1950. José Froilán González gave the team its first F1 victory at the 1951 British Grand Prix. Ferrari SF15-T (2015) Alberto Ascari gave Ferrari its first Drivers Championship a year later.

Ferrari is the oldest team in the championship, and the most successful: the team holds nearly every Formula One record. As of 2014, the team's records include 15 World Drivers Championship titles (1952, 1953, 1956, 1958, 1961, 1964, 1975, 1977, 1979, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2007) 16 World Constructors Championship titles (1961, 1964, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1982, 1983, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007 and 2008), 221 Grand Prix victories, 6736.

27 points, 679 podium finishes, 207 pole positions, and 230 fastest laps in 890 Grands Prix contested. Of the 19 tracks used in 2014, 8 have lap records set by the Ferrari F2004, with a further 3 set by the Ferrari F2003-GA, Ferrari F2008 and Ferrari F10. Ferrari drivers include: Tazio Nuvolari, José Froilán González, Juan Manuel Fangio, Alberto Ascari, Luigi Chinetti, Maurice Trintignant, Wolfgang von Trips, Phil Hill, Olivier Gendebien, Mike Hawthorn, Peter Collins, Giancarlo Baghetti, Ricardo Rodríguez, Chris Amon, John Surtees, Lorenzo Bandini, Ludovico Scarfiotti, Jacky Ickx, Mario Andretti, Clay Regazzoni, Niki Lauda, Carlos Reutemann, Jody Scheckter, Gilles Villeneuve, Didier Pironi, Patrick Tambay, René Arnoux, Michele Alboreto, Gerhard Berger, Nigel Mansell, Alain Prost, Jean Alesi, Michael Schumacher, Eddie Irvine, Rubens Barrichello, Felipe Massa, Kimi Räikkönen, Fernando Alonso, and Sebastian Vettel.

At the end of the 2006 season, the team courted controversy by continuing to allow Marlboro to sponsor them after they, along with the other F1 teams, made a promise to end sponsorship deals with tobacco manufacturers. A five-year deal was agreed and although this was not due to end until 2011, in April 2008 Marlboro dropped their on-car branding on Ferrari. A 312PB (driven by Jacky Ickx) during the team's final year in the World Sportscar Championship In addition to Formula One, Ferrari also entered cars in sportscar racing, the two programs existing in parallel for many years.

In 1949, Luigi Chinetti drove a 166 M to Ferrari's first win in motorsports, the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Ferrari went on to dominate the early years of the World Sportscar Championship which was created in 1953, winning the title seven out of its first nine years. When the championship format changed in 1962, Ferrari earned titles in at least one class each year through to 1965 and then again in 1967.

Ferrari would win one final title, the 1972 World Championship of Makes before Enzo decided to leave sports car racing after 1973 and allow Scuderia Ferrari to concentrate solely on Formula One. During Ferrari's seasons of the World Sportscars Championship, they also gained more wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, with the factory team earning their first in 1954. Another win would come in 1958, followed by five consecutive wins from 1960 to 1964.

Luigi Chinetti's North American Racing Team (NART) would take Ferrari's final victory at Le Mans in 1965. Although Scuderia Ferrari no longer participated in sports cars after 1973, they have occasionally built various successful sports cars for privateers. These include the BB 512 LM in the 1970s, the 333 SP which won the IMSA GT Championship in the 1990s, and currently the 458 GT2 and GT3 which are currently winning championships in their respective classes.

Race cars for other teams Throughout its history, Ferrari has supplied racing cars to other entrants, aside from its own works Scuderia Ferrari team. In the 1950s and '60s, Ferrari supplied Formula One cars to a number of private entrants and other teams. One famous example was Tony Vandervell's team, which raced the Thinwall Special modified Ferraris before building their own Vanwall cars. The North American Racing Team's entries in the final three rounds of the 1969 season were the last occasions on which a team other than Scuderia Ferrari entered a World Championship Grand Prix with a Ferrari car.

[19] Ferrari supplied cars complete with V8 engines for the A1 Grand Prix series, from the 2008-09 season.[20] The car was designed by Rory Byrne and is styled to resemble the 2004 Ferrari Formula one car. Ferrari currently runs a customer GT program for a racing version of its 458 model, and has done so for the 458's predecessors, dating back to the 355 in the late 1990s. Such private teams as the American Risi Competizione and Italian AF Corse teams have been very successful with Ferrari GT racers over the years.

This car, made for endurance sportscar racing to be competed against such racing versions of the Audi R8, McLaren MP4-12C, and BMW Z4 has proven to be successful, but not as successful as its predecessor, the F430. The Ferrari Challenge is a one make racing series for the Ferrari 458. The FXX is not road legal, and is therefore only used for track events. Road cars For a complete list, including future and concept car models, see List of Ferrari road cars.

Ferrari 166 Inter Touring Berlinetta Ferrari's first vehicle was the 125 S sports/racing model. In 1949, the Ferrari 166 Inter was introduced. The presentation of this car marked the company's first move into the grand touring market, which continues to make up the bulk of Ferrari sales to the present day. Several early cars featured bodywork customised by a number of coachbuilders such as Pininfarina, Zagato and Bertone.

The Dino was the first mid-engined Ferrari. This layout would go on to be used in most Ferraris of the 1980s and 1990s. V8 Ferrari models make up well over half of the marque's total production. For a time, Ferrari built 2+2 versions of its mid-engined V8 cars. Although they looked quite different from their 2-seat counterparts, both the GT4 and Mondial were closely related to the 308 GTB. The company has also produced front-engined 2+2 cars, culminating in the current California.

Ferrari entered the mid-engined 12-cylinder fray with the Berlinetta Boxer in 1973. The later Testarossa remains one of the most famous Ferraris. Current models 488 GTB 488 Spider California T 812 Superfast Sports car Twin-turbo V8 engine Coupé Sports car Twin-turbo V8 engine Convertible 2+2 grand tourer Twin-turbo V8 engine Convertible Grand tourer V12 engine Coupé F12tdf GTC4Lusso / GTC4Lusso T LaFerrari LaFerrari Aperta Performance V12 engine Coupé 2+2 grand tourer V12 engine, Twin-turbo V8 engine Shooting brake Hypercar V12 engine + HY-KERS Coupé Hypercar V12 engine + HY-KERS Convertible Enzo Ferrari Supercars Ferrari Mythos The 1984 Ferrari 288 GTO may be considered the first in the line of Ferrari supercars, which extends to the recent LaFerrari model.

Concept cars and specials Ferrari has produced a number of concept cars, such as the Ferrari Mythos. While some of these were quite radical (such as the Ferrari Modulo) and never intended for production, others such as the Ferrari Mythos have shown styling elements which were later incorporated into production models. The most recent concept car to be produced by Ferrari themselves was the 2010 Ferrari Millechili.

A number of one-off special versions of Ferrari road cars have also been produced, commissioned to coachbuilders by wealthy owners. Recent examples include the Ferrari P4/5 by Pininfarina[21] and the Ferrari 612 Kappa. Ferrari Special Projects The Special Projects programme was launched in the late 2000s as Ferrari's ultimate in-house personalization service, enabling customers to own bespoke bodied one-offs based on modern Ferrari road cars.

[22] Engineering and design is done by Ferrari, sometimes in cooperation with external design houses like Pininfarina or Fioravanti, and the vehicles receive full homologation to be road legal.[22] The first car to be completed under this programme was the 2008 Ferrari SP1, commissioned by a Japanese business executive, the second was the P540 Superfast Aperta, commissioned by an American collector.

[22] The following is a list of Special Projects cars that have been made public: Name Picture Year Based on Commissioned by Notes Ferrari SP1 2008 F430[23] Junichiro Hiramatsu[23] Design by Leonardo Fioravanti.[23] Ferrari P540 Superfast Aperta 2009 599 GTB[24] Edward Walson[24] Inspired by a similarly gold-painted and open-topped one-off built by Carrozzeria Fantuzzi on a Ferrari 330 LMB chassis.

[22][24] Ferrari Superamerica 45 2011 599 GTB[25] Peter Kalikow[25] Rotating targa top;[25] design by Pininfarina Ferrari SP12 EC 2012 458 Italia[26] Eric Clapton[26] Design by Centro Stile Ferrari and Pininfarina, in hommage to the Ferrari 512 BB.[26] Ferrari SP30 2013[27] 599 GTO[27] Cheerag Arya[27] Ferrari SP FFX — FF[28] Shin Okamoto[28] Design by Pininfarina[28] Ferrari F12 TRS 2014 F12berlinetta[29] — Barchetta body, inspired by the Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa.

Design by Centro Stile Ferrari.[29] Ferrari SP America 2014 F12berlinetta Danny Wegman[30] Ferrari 458 MM Speciale 2016 458 Speciale[31] — Design by Centro Stile Ferrari.[31] Ferrari SP275 RW Competizione 2016 F12tdf Ferrari J50 2016 488 Spider — Bio-fuel and hybrid cars A F430 Spider that runs on ethanol was displayed at the 2008 Detroit Auto Show. At the 2010 Geneva Motor Show, Ferrari unveiled a hybrid version of their flagship 599.

Called the "HY-KERS Concept", Ferrari's hybrid system adds more than 100 horsepower on top of the 599 Fiorano's 612 HP.[32] Also in mid-2014, the flagship LaFerrari was put into production. Naming conventions Until the early 1990s, Ferrari followed a three-number naming scheme based on engine displacement: V6 and V8 models used the total displacement (in decilitres) for the first two digits and the number of cylinders as the third.

Thus, the 206 was a 2.0 L V6 powered vehicle, while the 348 used a 3.4 L V8, although, for the F355, the last digit refers to 5 valves per cylinder. Upon introduction of the 360 Modena, the digits for V8 models (which now carried a name as well as a number) refer only to total engine displacement. The numerical indication aspect of this name carried on to the F430, however the F430's replacement, the 458 Italia uses the same naming as the 206 and 348.

The 488 uses the system formerly used by the V12 cars (ie 488 is the size of an individual cylinder in CC). V12 models used the displacement (in cubic centimetres) of one cylinder. Therefore, the famed 365 Daytona had a 4390 cc V12. However, some newer V12-engined Ferraris, such as the 599, have three-number designations that refer only to total engine displacement or boxer-style designations such as the [nominally] six-litre, V12 612.

Flat 12 (boxer) models used the displacement in litres for the first digit and the number of cylinders for the next two digits. Therefore, the BB 512 was five litre flat 12 (a Berlinetta Boxer, in this case). However, the original Berlinetta Boxer was the 365 GT4 BB, which was named in a similar manner to the V12 models. Flagship models (aka "Halo Cars") use the letter F followed by the anniversary in years, such as the F40 and F50.

The Enzo skipped this rule, although the F60 name was applied to a Ferrari Formula One car and is sometimes attached to the Enzo. Some models, such as the 1980 Mondial and the 1984 Testarossa did not follow a three-number naming scheme. 612 Scaglietti Sessanta Edition Most Ferraris were also given designations referring to their body style. In general, the following conventions were used: M ("Modificata"), placed at the end of a model's number, denotes a modified version of its predecessor and not a complete evolution (see F512 M and 575 M Maranello).

GTB ("Gran Turismo Berlinetta") models are closed Berlinettas, or coupés. GTS ("Gran Turismo Spider") in older models, are open Spiders, or convertibles (see 365 GTS/4); however, in more recent models, this suffix is used for targa top models (see Dino 246 GTS, and F355 GTS; the exception being the 348 TS, which is the only targa named differently). The convertible models now use the suffix "Spider" (spelt "i") (see F355 Spider, and 360 Spider).

GTO ("Gran Turismo Omologata"), placed at the end of a model's number, denotes a modified version of its predecessor. Indeed, those three letters designate a model which has been designed and improved for racetrack use while still being a street-legal model. Only three models bear those three letters; the 250 GTO of 1962, the 288 GTO of 1984 and the 599 GTO of 2010. This naming system can be confusing, as some entirely different vehicles used the same engine type and body style.

Many Ferraris also had other names affixed (like Daytona) to identify them further. Many such names are actually not official factory names. The Daytona name commemorates Ferrari's triple success in the February 1967 24 Hours of Daytona with the 330 P4.[33] Only in the 1973 Daytona 24 Hours, a 365 GTB/4 model run by NART (who raced Ferrari's in America) ran second, behind a Porsche 911.[34] The various Dino models were named for Enzo's son, Dino Ferrari, and were marketed as Dinos by Ferrari and sold at Ferrari dealers—for all intents and purposes they are Ferraris.

In the mid-1990s, Ferrari added the letter "F" to the beginning of all models (a practice abandoned after the F512 M and F355, but adopted again with the F430, but not with its successor, the Ferrari 458 ). Identity The Cavallino Rampante with Ferrari lettering Ferrari head office and factory Count Francesco Baracca Coat of arms of the Baracca family The famous symbol of the Ferrari race team is the Cavallino Rampante ("prancing horse") black prancing stallion on a yellow shield, usually with the letters S F (for Scuderia Ferrari), with three stripes of green, white and red (the Italian national colors) at the top.

The road cars have a rectangular badge on the hood (see picture at top of page), and, optionally, the shield-shaped race logo on the sides of both front wings, close to the door. On 17 June 1923, Enzo Ferrari won a race at the Savio track in Ravenna where he met the Countess Paolina, mother of Count Francesco Baracca, an ace of the Italian air force and national hero of World War I, who used to paint a horse on the side of his planes.

The Countess asked Enzo to use this horse on his cars, suggesting that it would bring him good luck. The original "prancing horse" on Baracca's airplane was painted in red on a white cloud-like shape, but Ferrari chose to have the horse in black (as it had been painted as a sign of grief on Baracca's squadron planes after the pilot was killed in action) and he added a canary yellow background as this is the color of the city of Modena, his birthplace.

The Ferrari horse was, from the very beginning, markedly different from the Baracca horse in most details, the most noticeable being the tail that in the original Baracca version was pointing downward. Ferrari has used the cavallino rampante on official company stationery since 1929. Since the Spa 24 Hours of 9 July 1932, the cavallino rampante has been used on Alfa Romeos raced by Scuderia Ferrari.

The motif of a prancing horse is old, it can be found on ancient coins. A similar black horse on a yellow shield is the Coat of Arms of the German city of Stuttgart, home of Mercedes-Benz and the design bureau of Porsche, both being main competitors of Alfa and Ferrari in the 1930s. The city's name derives from Stutengarten, an ancient form of the German word Gestüt, which translates into English as stud farm and into Italian as scuderia.

Porsche also includes the Stuttgart sign in its corporate logo, centred in the emblem of the state of Württemberg. Stuttgart's Rössle has both rear legs firmly planted on the soil, like Baracca's horse, but unlike Ferrari's cavallino. Fabio Taglioni used the cavallino rampante on his Ducati motorbikes, as Taglioni was born at Lugo di Romagna like Baracca, and his father too was a military pilot during WWI (although not part of Baracca's squadron, as is sometimes mistakenly reported).

As Ferrari's fame grew, Ducati abandoned the horse- perhaps the result of a private agreement between the two companies. Austrian fuel stations The cavallino rampante is the visual symbol of Ferrari. Cavallino Magazine uses the name, but not the logo. Other companies use similar logos: Avanti, an Austrian company operating over 100 filling stations, uses a prancing horse logo which is nearly identical to Ferrari's, as does Iron Horse Bicycles and Norfolk Southern Railway.

Colour Main article: Rosso corsa Since the 1920s, Italian race cars of Alfa Romeo, Maserati and later Ferrari and Abarth were (and often still are) painted in "race red" (Rosso Corsa). This was the customary national racing color of Italy, as recommended between the World Wars by the organizations that later would become the FIA. It refers to the nationality of the competing team, not that of the car manufacturer or driver.

In that scheme, French-entered cars such as Bugatti were blue, German such as Auto Union and Mercedes white (since 1934 also bare sheet metal silver), and British green such as the mid-1960s Lotus and BRM, for instance. Ferrari won the 1964 World championship with John Surtees by competing the last two races in North America with cars painted in the US-American race colors white and blue, as these were not entered by the Italian factory themselves, but by the U.

S.-based North American Racing Team (NART) team. This was done as a protest concerning arguments between Ferrari and the Italian Racing Authorities regarding the homologation of a new mid-engined Ferrari race car. Corporate affairs In 1963, Enzo Ferrari was approached by the Ford Motor Company about a possible buy out.[35] Ford audited Ferrari's assets but legal negotiations and talks were unilaterally cut off by Ferrari when he realized that the deal offered by Ford would not enable him to stay at the helm of the company racing program.

Henry Ford II consequently directed his racing division to negotiate with Lotus, Lola, and Cooper to build a car capable of beating Ferrari on the world endurance circuit, eventually resulting in the production of the Ford GT40 in 1964. As the Ford deal fell through, FIAT approached Ferrari with a more flexible proposal and purchased controlling interests in the company in 1969. Enzo Ferrari retained a 10% share, which is currently owned by his son Piero Lardi Ferrari.

Ferrari has an internally managed merchandising line that licenses many products bearing the Ferrari brand, including eyewear, pens, pencils, electronic goods, perfume, cologne, clothing, high-tech bicycles, watches, cell phones and laptop computers. Ferrari also runs a museum, the Museo Ferrari in Maranello, which displays road and race cars and other items from the company's history. Technical partnerships Ferrari has had a long-standing relationship with Shell Oil.

It is a technical partnership with Ferrari and Ducati to test as well as supply fuel and oils to the Formula One, MotoGP and World Superbike racing teams. For example, the Shell V-Power premium gasoline fuel has been developed with the many years of technical expertise between Shell and Ferrari.[36] Ferrari have had agreements to supply Formula One engines to a number of other teams over the years, and currently supply Sauber F1 Team, and Haas F1 Team.

Sales history As of 2008, the estimated total of Ferrari built and sold cars in whole company history was about 130,000.[37] Year Sales to end customers (number of type-approved vehicles) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1977[38] 1,798*   1978[38] 1,939*   1979[38] 2,221*   1980[38] 2,470*   1981[38] 2,565*   1982[38] 2,209*   1983[39] 2,366*   1984[40] 2,856*   1985[38] 3,051   1986[38] 3,663   1987[41] 3,942   1988–96 no data 1997[42] 3,581   1998 no data 1999[43] 3,775   2000[44] 4,070   2001[45] 4,289   2002[46] 4,236   2003[47] 4,238   2004[48] 4,975   2005[49] 5,409   2006[50] 5,671   2007[51] 6,465   2008[52] 6,587   2009[53] 6,250   2010[54] 6,461   2011[55] 7,001   2012[56] 7,318   2013[57] 6,922   2014[58] 7,255†   2015[59] 7,664†   2016[60] 8,014†   * Figure refers to units produced rather than to units sold.

† Figure refers to units shipped rather than to units sold. Stores Approximately thirty Ferrari boutiques exist worldwide, with two owned by Ferrari and the rest operating as franchises. The stores sell branded clothes, accessories and racing memorabilia. Clothing includes upscale and lower priced collections for men, women, and children. Some stores include race car simulation games for entertainment.

[61] See also List of Ferrari road cars List of car brands List of companies of Italy List of Ferrari engines Scuderia Ferrari Ferrari 70th Anniversary Notes ^ a b c d e f "History of Enzo Ferrari". Retrieved 31 May 2016. ^ "2016 Annual Report" (PDF). Ferrari. 1 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017. ^ Haigh, Robert (18 February 2014). "Ferrari – The World's Most Powerful Brand".

Brand Finance. Retrieved 9 February 2015. ^ Reyburn, Scott (1 June 2012). "Ferrari GTO Becomes Most Expensive Car at $35 Million". Retrieved 3 June 2012. ^ "Fiat Raises Stake In Ferrari to 90%". The New York Times Company. 8 September 1988. Retrieved 10 April 2014. ^ "Fiat 2013 Annual Report" (PDF). Fiat S.p.A. Retrieved 13 August 2014. ^ "FCA Announces Board Intention to Spin Off Ferrari S.

p.A" (PDF). Fiat S.p.A. Retrieved 28 October 2014. ^ Sylvers, Eric (3 March 2015). "Fiat Chrysler May Sell More of Ferrari in IPO Sale". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 31 May 2015. ^ a b "Questions and answers regarding the Ferrari spin-off". Ferrari. Retrieved 7 January 2016. ^ Visnic, Bill (23 July 2015). "Wall Street, Buckle Up! Ferrari Officially Files For IPO". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 July 2015.

^ "Ferrari". Archived from the original on 8 August 2016. ^ "Luxury supercars". Retrieved 31 May 2016. ^ History of Ferrari In DK Engineering from Retrieved 14 September 2010 ^ a b "Ferrari S.p.A. History". Funding Universe. Retrieved 10 April 2014. ^ "Felipe Massa and Marc Gene lead a record breaking parade of Ferraris at Silverstone".

Skidmark. 15 September 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012. ^ "Ferrari CEO Quits In A Huff, Says Company Is Now 'American'". ^ Ferrari quitte Fiat et rentre dans le circuit boursier, le Monde, 30 October 2014 ^ "Ferrari IPO prices at $52/share, within range". CNBC. Retrieved 21 October 2015. ^ Hayhoe, David & Holland, David (2006). Grand Prix Data Book (4th edition). Haynes, Sparkford, UK. ISBN 978-1-84425-223-7 ^ "Ferrari's A1GP Deal".

Yahoo Sport. 11 October 2007. Retrieved 24 March 2008. ^ September 2006 BY TED WEST. "Pininfarina Ferrari P4/5 – Feature – Car and Driver". Retrieved 22 June 2014. ^ a b c d Neff, John (11 December 2009). "Ferrari P540 Superfast Aperta revealed, second from Special Projects program". Retrieved 14 December 2014. ^ a b c "Ferrari SP1". 12 November 2008.

Retrieved 13 December 2014. ^ a b c Gluckman, David (11 December 2009). "Ferrari P540 Superfast Aperta: A One-Off Based On a One-Off". Retrieved 13 December 2014. ^ a b c Kable, Greg (18 May 2011). "Ferrari Superamerica 45: One-off 599 created for wealthy American customer". Retrieved 13 December 2014. ^ a b c Lingeman, Jake (6 November 2012). "Ferrari and Pininfarina finish Clapton's customized 512BB homage". Retrieved 13 December 2014. ^ a b c "Ferrari SP Arya one-off in the works". 28 August 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2014. ^ a b c "Japan Gathering Features Two One-Off Models". 1 April 2014. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2014. ^ a b Joseph, Noah (23 June 2014). "Ferrari reveals one-off F12 TRS at Sicily cavalcade homage". Retrieved 13 December 2014. ^ Anderson, Brad (24 September 2014). "One-off 2015 Ferrari F12 SP America snapped in public". Retrieved 13 December 2016. ^ a b Migliore, Greg (31 May 2016). "Ferrari reveals extra 'speciale' 458". Retrieved 1 September 2016. ^ "The Ferrari HY-KERS Bows at Geneva". Retrieved 31 May 2016. ^ "World Championship 1967". Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2010. ^ "World Championship 1973". Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2010. ^ "Ford GT". ^ "Ferrari and Shell V-Power". Shell Canada. 15 January 2009. Archived from the original on 17 August 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2009. ^ "Crunching Ferrari's Global Numbers". Retrieved 22 June 2014. ^ a b c d e f g h Fenu, Michele (16 January 1987), "Ferrari, un anno magico—Dieci anni di produzione", La Stampa (in Italian), p. 17, retrieved 13 February 2016 ^ "Azienda senza crisi", La Stampa (in Italian), p. 15, 7 September 1984, retrieved 13 February 2016 ^ "Ferrari un '85 record", La Stampa (in Italian), p. 15, 25 January 1985, retrieved 13 February 2016 ^ Rogliatti, Gianni (13 May 1988), "Ferrari "F40", si guida come un giocattolo", La Stampa (in Italian), p.

 21, retrieved 13 February 2016 ^ "Il fatturato Ferrari vola a mille miliardi", La Repubblica (in Italian), 16 May 1998, retrieved 11 September 2015 ^ Fiat Group 1999 Annual Report (PDF) ^ Fiat Group 2000 Annual Report (PDF) ^ Fiat Group 2001 Annual Report (PDF) ^ Fiat Group 2002 Annual Report (PDF) ^ Fiat Group 2003 Annual Report (PDF) ^ Fiat Group 2004 Annual Report (PDF) ^ Fiat Group 2005 Annual Report (PDF) ^ Fiat Group 2006 Annual Report (PDF) ^ Fiat Group 2007 Annual Report (PDF) ^ Fiat Group 2008 Annual Report (PDF) ^ Fiat Group 2009 Annual Report (PDF) ^ Fiat Group 2010 Annual Report (PDF) ^ Fiat Group 2011 Annual Report (PDF) ^ Fiat Group 2012 Annual Report (PDF) ^ Holloway, Hilton.

"Ferrari profits rise despite fewer sales in 2013". Retrieved 2 June 2015. ^ FCA Full Year 2014 results (PDF), Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, 28 January 2015, p. 6, retrieved 11 March 2015 ^ Ferrari FY 2015 Results (PDF), Ferrari N.V., 2 February 2016, p. 20, retrieved 3 February 2016 ^ Ferrari Full Year 2016 Results (PDF), Ferrari N.V., 2 February 2016, p. 3, retrieved 7 February 2017 ^ Martens, Cynthia (16 March 2015).

"Ferrari Opens New Flagship Store". WWD. Retrieved 3 February 2017. References Eric Gustafson, "Cavallino Rampante", Sports Car International (Oct/Nov 2000): 94. Adler, Dennis, Ferrari: The Road from Maranello. Random House, 2006. ISBN 978-1-4000-6463-2. External links Find more aboutFerrariat Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Official website v t e FTSE MIB companies of Italy A2A Atlantia Azimut Banca Mediolanum Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena Banco BPM BPER Banca Buzzi Unicem Campari CNH Industrial Enel Eni Exor FCA Ferrari FinecoBank Finmeccanica Generali Intesa Sanpaolo Italcementi Luxottica Mediaset Mediobanca Moncler Prysmian Saipem Salvatore Ferragamo Snam STMicroelectronics Telecom Italia Tenaris Terna UBI Banca UniCredit Unipol UnipolSai YNAP v t e Ferrari Cars Current 488 812 Superfast GTC4Lusso LaFerrari Portofino Past 125 S 159 S 166 Inter 166 S 195 Inter 212 Export 250 250 GT Lusso 250 GTO 268 SP 275 288 GTO 308 GTB/GTS 328 348 330 360 365 365 GT 2+2 365 GTC/4 375 MM 400 456 458 550 575M Maranello 599 612 Scaglietti America Auto Avio Costruzioni 815 Berlinetta Boxer California California T Daytona Enzo GT4 F12berlinetta F355 F40 F50 F430 FF Mondial Testarossa P Concepts Millechili Modulo Mythos P4/5 by Pininfarina Engines Current F140 F154 F160 Past F116/F133 F136 Flat-12 Colombo Dino Lampredi Other Museum Museo Ferrari Museo Casa Enzo Ferrari Related Prancing Horse Enzo Ferrari History Scuderia Ferrari Arno XI Commons v t e Ferrari road car timeline, 1947–1969 — next » Type 1940s 1950s 1960s 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Sports 340 MM 375 MM 125 S 166 S/166 MM 195 S 212 Export 225 S 250 MM 250 Monza 250 LM 159 S 250 S 250 Export 250  GTO Berlinetta 250 GT "Tour de France" 250 GT SWB 250 GT Lusso 275 GTB 275 GTB/4 365 GTB/4 Coupé 166 Inter 195 Inter 212 Inter 250 Europa 250 GT Europa 250 GT Boano 250 GT Ellena 250 GT Coupé Pininfarina 330 GTC 365 GTC 2+2 250 GT/E 330 GT 2+2 365 GT 2+2 Spider 250 GT Cabriolet 275 GTS 330 GTS 365 GTS 250 GT California Spyder America 340/342 America 375 America 410 Superamerica 400 Superamerica 500 Superfast 365 California v t e « previous — Ferrari road car timeline, 1960s–1990s — next » Type 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 cylinder Mid-engine berlinetta 308 308 i 308 QV 328 348 360 208 208 Turbo GTB/GTS Turbo F355 Mid-engine 2+2 308 GT4 Mondial 8 Mondial QV Mondial 3.

2 Mondial t 208 GT4 12 cylinder Boxer berlinetta 365 BB 512 BB 512i BB Testarossa 512TR F512 M Grand tourer 250 275 365 GTB/4 "Daytona" 550 Maranello America 330 365 2+2 coupé 250 GT/E 330 GT 2+2 365 GT 2+2 365 GTC/4 365 GT4 2+2 400 400 i 412 456 456M Supercar 250 GTO 250 LM 288 GTO F40 F50      Sold under the Dino marque until 1976; see also Dino car timeline v t e « previous — Ferrari road car timeline, 1996–present Type 1990s 2000s 2010s 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 V8 Rear mid-enginesports car 360 458 Challenge Stradale 430 Scuderia 458 Speciale F355 F430 488 Convertible California California T Portofino 2+2 grand tourer GTC4Lusso T V12 Grand tourer 550 Maranello 575M Maranello 599 GTB Fiorano F12berlinetta 812 Superfast 550 Barchetta Superamerica 599 SA Aperta/599 GTO F60 America/F12tdf 2+2 grand tourer 456 456 M 612 Scaglietti FF GTC4Lusso Supercar F50 Enzo LaFerrari LaFerrari Aperta XX Programmes FXX 599XX 599XX Evoluzione FXX K FXX K Evo v t e Automotive industry in Italy Automotive industry Transport in Italy Economy of Italy Active manufacturers Passenger cars and LCVs Alkè De Tomaso DR Ducati Ferrari FCA Italy Abarth Alfa Romeo FIAT Fiat Professional Lancia Martin Maserati Fornasari Lamborghini OTO Melara Pagani Piaggio Commercial vehicles Bremach CNH Industrial Italy Iveco Astra Iveco Bus Quadricycles Casalini Giottiline Grecav Italcar Racing cars Dallara Osella Picchio Racing Cars Wolf Racing Cars Defunct manufacturers Passenger cars and LCVs ATS Bianchi Bizzarrini Ceirano Chiribiri Cisitalia Cizeta De Tomaso Diatto Fiat S.

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P.A. (Società Piemontese Automobili) SRT Sunbeam Valiant Zastava Automobiles Subsidiaries FCA Italy Subsidiaries Abarth & C. Alfa Romeo Automobiles Fiat Automobiles Fiat Professional Lancia Automobiles FCA Argentina FCA Auto Poland FCA Brasil Current JV FCA Automobili Srbija (67%) FCA India Automobiles (50%) GAC FCA (50%) Sevel (50%) Tofaş (37.8%) Defunct JV Nanjing Fiat Automobile FCA US see own template for a list of marques, divisions and joint ventures Comau Fiat Powertrain Technologies (VM Motori) Italiana Editrice (77%) La Stampa Il Secolo XIX Magneti Marelli Maserati Teksid (84.

8%) Facilities List of assembly sites Lingotto (former) Nardò Ring (former) People Giovanni Agnelli Gianni Agnelli Andrea Agnelli John Elkann Sergio Marchionne Related Fiat S.p.A. CNH Industrial Iveco EXOR Fiat Aviazione Fiat Ferroviaria Fiat Industrial Ferrari Category Commons v t e Formula One constructors 2018 season Ferrari Force India Haas McLaren Mercedes Red Bull Renault Sauber Toro Rosso Williams Former AFM AGS Alfa Romeo Alta Amon Andrea Moda Apollon Arrows Arzani-Volpini Aston-Butterworth Aston Martin ATS (Italy) ATS (Germany) BAR Behra-Porsche Bellasi Benetton BMW Boro Brabham Brawn BRM BRP Bugatti Caterham Cisitalia Coloni Connaught Connew Cooper Cosworth Dallara De Tomaso Delahaye Derrington-Francis Eagle Eifelland Emeryson EMW ENB Ensign ERA EuroBrun Ferguson FIRST Fittipaldi Fondmetal Footwork Forti Frazer Nash Fry Gilby Gordini Hesketh Hill Honda HRT HWM Jaguar JBW Jordan Kauhsen Klenk Kojima Kurtis Kraft Lancia Larrousse LDS LEC Leyton House Life Ligier Lola Lola (Haas) Lotus (1958–1994) Lotus (2010–2011) Lotus (2012–2015) Lyncar Maki March Martini Marussia Maserati Matra MBM McGuire Merzario Midland Milano Minardi Modena MRT Onyx OSCA Osella Pacific Parnelli Penske Porsche Prost RAM Realpha Rebaque Reynard Rial Scarab Scirocco Shadow Shannon Simtek Spirit Spyker Stebro Stewart Super Aguri Surtees Talbot-Lago Tec-Mec Tecno Theodore Token Toleman Toyota Trojan Tyrrell Vanwall Veritas Virgin Williams (FWRC) Wolf Zakspeed Although World Championship races held in 1952 and 1953 were run to Formula Two regulations, constructors who only participated during this period are included herein to maintain Championship continuity.

Constructors whose only participation in the World Championship was in the Indianapolis 500 races between 1950 and 1960 are not listed. Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 193720481 LCCN: n83123873 GND: 2092682-0 SUDOC: 029216095 Coordinates: 44°31′57″N 10°51′51″E / 44.532447°N 10.864137°E Retrieved from ""

Hazel Gordon

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