Northern Inuit Dog Price

Picture of Northern Inuit Dog Price

This article is about the Eskimo–Aleut language family. For discussion of the term "Eskimo", see Eskimo § Nomenclature. Eskimo–Aleut Eskaleut Geographic distribution Alaska, Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland, eastern Siberia Linguistic classification One of the world's primary language families Proto-language Proto-Eskimo–AleutProto-Eskimo Subdivisions Inuit Yupik Aleut ISO 639-5 esx Glottolog eski1264[1] Eskimo–Aleut languages are spoken in Russia (not on map), Alaska, Canada and Greenland.

The Eskimo–Aleut languages (/ˈɛs.kɪ.moʊæ.liːˈ.uːt/), or Eskaleut languages, are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland and the Chukchi Peninsula, on the eastern tip of Siberia. It is also known as Eskaleutian, Eskaleutic[2] or Inuit–Yupik-Unangan.[3] The Eskimo–Aleut language family is divided into two branches: the Eskimo languages and the Aleut language.

The Aleut branch consists of a single language, Aleut, spoken in the Aleutian Islands and the Pribilof Islands. It is divided into several dialects. The Eskimo languages are divided into two branches: the Yupik languages, spoken in western and southwestern Alaska and in easternmost Siberia, and the Inuit languages, spoken in northern Alaska, Canada and Greenland. Inuit, which covers a huge range of territory, is divided into several varieties.

Neighbouring varieties are quite similar, although those at the farthest distances from the centre in the Diomede Islands and East Greenland are quite divergent.[4] The proper place of one language, Sirenik, within the Eskimo family has not been settled. While some linguists list it as a branch of Yupik,[5] others list it as a separate branch of the Eskimo family, alongside Yupik and Inuit.[6] The Alaska Native Language Center believes that the common ancestral language of the Eskimo languages and of Aleut divided into the Eskimo and Aleut branches at least 4,000 years ago.

[4][7] The Eskimo language family split into the Yupik and Inuit branches around 1,000 years ago.[7] The Eskimo–Aleut languages are among the native languages of the Americas. This is a geographical category, not a genealogical one. The Eskimo–Aleut languages are not demonstrably related to the other language families of North America[7] and are believed to represent a separate, and the last, prehistoric migration of people from Asia.

Internal classification Eskimo–Aleut languages Aleut Western–Central dialects: Atkan, Attuan, Unangan, Bering (60–80 speakers) Eastern dialects: Unalaskan, Pribilof (400 speakers) Eskimo languages (or Yupik–Inuit languages) Yupik (11,000 speakers) Central Alaskan Yup'ik (10,000 speakers) General Central Alaskan Yup’ik language (or Yugtun) Chevak Cup’ik (or Cugtun) Nunivak Cup'ig (or Cugtun) Alutiiq or Pacific Gulf Yupik (400 speakers) Koniag Alutiiq Chugach Alutiiq Central Siberian Yupik or Yuit (Chaplinon and St.

Lawrence Island, 1,400 speakers) Chaplinski St. Lawrence Island Yupik (Sivuqaghmiistun) Naukan (70 speakers) Sirenik (extinct) (viewed as an independent branch by some) Inuit (98,000 speakers) Inupiaq or Inupiat (northern Alaska, 3,500 speakers) Qawiaraq or Seward Peninsula Inupiaq Inupiatun or Northern Alaska Inupiaq (including Uummarmiutun (Aklavik, Inuvik)) Inuvialuktun (western Canada, 765 speakers) Siglitun (Paulatuk, Sachs Harbour, Tuktoyaktuk) Inuinnaqtun (in Ulukhaktok also known as Kangiryuarmiutun) Natsilingmiutut (Nattilik area, Nunavut) Inuktitut (eastern Canada; together with Inuinnaqtun, 40,000 speakers) Nunatsiavummiutut (Nunatsiavut, 550 speakers) Nunavimmiutitut (Nunavik) Qikiqtaaluk nigiani (South Baffin) Qikiqtaaluk uannangani (North Baffin) Aivilimmiutut (Eastcentral Nunavut) Kivallirmiutut (Southeast Nunavut) Greenlandic (Greenland, 54,000 speakers) Kalaallisut (West Greenlandic, 50,000 speakers) Tunumiisut (East Greenlandic, 3,500 speakers) Inuktun or Avanersuaq (Polar Eskimo, approx 1,000 speakers) Position among the world's language families Eskimo–Aleut does not have any genetic relationship to any of the world's other language families that is generally accepted by linguists at the present time.

There is general agreement that it is not closely related to the other language families of North America. The more credible proposals on the external relations of Eskimo–Aleut all concern one or more of the language families of northern Eurasia, such as Chukchi–Kamchatkan just across the Bering Strait. One of the first such proposals was made by the pioneering Danish linguist Rasmus Rask in 1818, upon noticing similarities between Greenlandic and Finnish.

Perhaps the most fully developed such proposal to date is Michael Fortescue's Uralo-Siberian hypothesis, published in 1998. More recently Joseph Greenberg (2000–2002) suggested grouping Eskimo–Aleut with all of the language families of northern Eurasia (Indo-European, Uralic, Altaic, Korean, Japanese, Ainu, Nivkh/Gilayak, and Chukchi-Kamchatkan), with the exception of Yeniseian, in a proposed language family called Eurasiatic.

Such proposals are not generally accepted. Criticisms have been made stating that Greenberg's hypothesis is ahistorical, meaning that it lacks and sacrifices known historical elements of language in favour of external similarities.[8] Although the Eurasiatic hypothesis is disregarded by linguists, one critique by Stefan Georg and Alexander Vovin, stated that they were not willing to disregard the theory immediately, although ultimately agreed that Greenberg's conclusion was dubious.

Greenberg explicitly states that his developments were based on the previous macro-comparative work done by Vladislav Illich-Svitych and Bombard and Kerns.[8] By providing evidence of lexical comparison, Greenberg hoped that it would strengthen his hypothesis. Despite all these efforts, the Eurasiatic language theory was overruled on the basis that mass comparison is not accurate enough an approach.

In Comparative linguistics, the comparative method bases its validity on highly regular changes, not occasional semantic and phonological similarities, which is what the Eurasiatic hypothesis provides. In the 1960s Swadesh suggested a connection with the Wakashan languages. This was picked up and expanded by Holst (2005).[9] Notable features Every word must have only one root (free morpheme) always at the beginning.

[10] Eskimo–Aleut languages have a relatively small number of roots: in the case of Central Alaskan Yup'ik, around two thousand.[11] Following the root are a number of postbases, which are bound morphemes that add to the basic meaning of the root. If the meaning of the postbase is to be expressed alone, a special neutral root (in the case of Central Alaskan Yup'ik and Inuktitut pi) is used. The basic word schema is as follows: root-(affixes)-inflection-(enclitic).

Below is an example from Central Siberian Yupik.[12] Central Siberian Yupik angyagh-(gh)lla-ng(e)-yug-tuq=lu boat-big-acquire-want.to-indic.3s-also ‘also, he wants to acquire a big boat’ There are a total of three affixes internal to the word 'angyagh.' The root (or free morpheme) 'angyagh' and the inflection '-tuq' on the right consist of the indicative mood marker plus third person singular.

The enclitic –lu ‘also’ follows the inflection.[13] Following the postbases are non-lexical suffixes that indicate case on nouns and person and mood on verbs. The number of cases varies, with Aleut languages having a greatly reduced case system compared to Eskimo. The Eskimo languages are ergative–absolutive in nouns and in Yup'ik languages, also in verbal person marking. All Eskimo–Aleut languages have obligatory verbal agreement with agent and patient in transitive clauses, and there are special suffixes used for this purpose in subordinate clauses, which makes these languages, like most in the North Pacific, highly complement deranking.

At the end of a word there can be one of a small number of clitics with meanings such as "but" or indicating a polar interrogative. Phonologically, the Eskimo–Aleut languages resemble other languages of northern North America and far eastern Siberia. There are usually only three vowels, a, i and u, though some Yup'ik dialects also have ə. All Eskimo–Aleut languages lack ejectives, which makes them really akin to Northern Chukotko-Kamchatkan rather than such “Amerind” families as Na-Dene or Tsimshianic.

Eskimo–Aleut languages possess voiceless plosives at the bilabial, coronal, velar and uvular positions in all languages except Aleut, which has lost the bilabial stops but retained the nasal. There are contrasting voiced and voiceless fricatives at the same positions, and in the Eskimo subfamily a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is also present. A rare feature of many dialects of Yup'ik and Aleut is contrasting voiceless nasals.

Phonology Eskimo Main Article: Proto-Eskimo–Aleut language The following vowels and consonants were taken from Michael Fortescue et al., 2010[14] Vowels Eskimo /ə/ corresponds to Aleut /i/. Front Central Back Close i ɨ u Mid ə Open a Consonants Inuit allows only a single initial consonant and no more than two successive consonants between vowels. Yupik lacks the consonant assimilation process so common to Inuit.

Consonants in parentheses are non-Proto-Eskimo phonemes. Labial Alveolar Velar Uvular Glottal plain palatalized Nasal m (m̥) n (n̥) (nʲ)[1] ŋ (ŋ̥) Plosive p t tʲ k q Trill (ʀ̃) Affricate c[2] s (z) (s̆) (z̆) Fricative voiceless (f) (w̥) (x) (χ) (h) voiced v (w) ð ɣ ʁ Lateral fricative (ɬ)[3] Approximant l j[4] Aleut Main Article: Aleut language The following vowels and consonants were taken from Knut Bergsland, (1997).

[15] Vowels The Aleut language has six vowels in total: three short vowels /i/, /u/, /a/, and three long vowels /iː/, /uː/, /aː/. Orthographically, they would be spelled ii, uu, and aa. There are no diphthongs in Aleut vowels. The length of the vowel is dependent upon three characteristics: stress, surrounding consonants, and in particularly Eastern Aleut, surrounding vowels. Short vowels are in initial position if a following consonant is velar or labial.

For example: the demonstratives uka, ika, and aka. Long vowels are lower than their short counterpart vowels, but are less retracted if they make contact with a uvular consonant. For example: uuquchiing 'blue fox,' qiiqix̂ 'storm-petrel', and qaaqaan 'eat it!' Front Central Back Close i iː u uː Mid Open a aː Consonants The Aleut consonants featured below include single Roman letters, digraphs, and one trigraph.

Phonemes in parenthesis are found only in Russian and English loanwords, the phoneme in italics is found only in Eastern Aleut, and the bold phonemes are a part of the standard Aleut inventory. Aleut lacks labial stops and allows clusters of up to three consonants as well as consonant clusters in word initial position. Noteworthy phonological features: lack of a [p] and its unaspirated nasals Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal Stop /p/ (p) /b/ (b) /t/ t /d/ (d) /t̺͡s̺/ tʳ* /tʃ/ ch /k/ k /ɡ/ (g) /q/ q Fricative /f/ (f) /v/ v* /θ/ 'hd' /ð/ d /s/ s /z/ z /x/ x /ɣ/ g /χ/ x̂ /ʁ/ ĝ Nasal /m̥/ hm /m/ m /n̥/ hn /n/ n /ŋ̥/ hng /ŋ/ ng Lateral /ɬ/ hl /l/ l Approximant /ʍ/ hw /w/ w /ɹ/, /ɾ/ (r) /ç/ hy /j/ y /h/ h Morphology Language type Polysynthetic language Eskimo-Aleut is a polysynthetic language, which is the process in which a single word is able to contain multiple post-bases or morphemes.

The Eskimo–Aleut languages are exclusively suffixing (with the exception of one prefix in Inuktitut which appears in demonstratives). Suffixes are able to combine and ultimately create an unlimited number of words. Some of the morphemes that are able to attach contain features such as, carrying nominal subjects and objects, adverbial information, direct objects, and spatial noun phrases.[16] Polysynthetic languages are said to have come from a form of extreme agglutination, which allows single words to carry the same information that another language expresses in whole clauses.

Let's look at an example of a polysynthetic language: Central Alaskan Yupik:[17] qayar-pa-li-qa-sqe-ssaage-llru-aqa kayak-big-make-pol-ev-A.ask-but-past-1sg/3sg.ind 'I asked him to make a big kayak (but actually he has not made it yet)' As a polysynthetic language, Eskimo-Aleut is more concerned with what "each morpheme means, which categories it can attach to, whether there is any category change, etc.

and what type of morphophonological effect occurs to the left as it attaches to the stem."[18] Morphosyntactic alignment Ergative-Absolutive Language: Eskimo-Aleut follows the basic word order of Subject-Object-Verb (SOV). Eskimo is an Ergative-Absolutive language. This means subjects of intransitive verbs and objects of transitive verbs are marked with the absolutive case, while subjects of transitive verbs are marked with the ergative case.

Aleut is not an ergative-absolutive language. It doesn't matter if the verb is transitive or intransitive—subjects and objects are not marked differently. If a transitive object or an object of possession is openly communicated, ergative case marking will not be expressed. If a transitive object or object of possession is not openly communicated, then ergative case marking will be expressed. Example of case marking in Aleut:[15] Aleut Tayaĝu-x̂ qa-x̂ qa-ku-x̂ man-abs fish eat-ind-3sg 'The man eats the/a fish' Tayaĝu-m qa-kuu man-erg eat-3sg/3sg.

ind 'The man eats it' Syntax The syntax of Eskimo-Aleut is concerned with the functional use of its morphological structure. The two language branches, although part of the same family, have separated and detached themselves in relation to grammatical similarities. Bergsland states that Aleut, which was once a language more similar to Proto-Eskimo than the current Eskimo languages themselves, has distanced itself from the ancient language.

The case inflections, “relative *-m, instrumental *-mEk/meN, and locative *-mi[19] have undergone phonological merger and led to a completely different explanation of ergative morphology in Proto-Eskimo. In order to further explain the profound changes that have occurred in Aleutian syntax, Bergsland proposed the Domino Effect, which is ultimately the chronological order of Aleut’s unique features.

Below is a step by step list of the 'domino effect': The Domino Effect:[20] The phonological reduction of final syllables and the ensuing syncretism of locative, relative, and instrumental case markers; The collapse of the ergative system (and of the distinction between relative and locative case in postpositional constructions; The development of the unusual Aleut anaphoric reference system from the debris of this collapse, going hand in hand with a strict fixation of SOV word order; The simple 3rd person forms when the original morphemes began to refer to any anaphoric (non-overt) referent, and; The spread of such a referent's own number (including that of a possessor of some overt argument) to the final verb of the (complex) sentence, overriding agreement with the subject.

Vocabulary comparison The following is a comparison of cognates among the basic vocabulary across the Eskimo–Aleut language family (about 122 words). Note that empty cells do not imply that a particular language is lacking a word to describe the concept, but rather that the word for the concept in that language is formed from another stem and is not a cognate with the other words in the row. Also, there may be shifts in the meaning from one language to another, and so the "common meaning" given is only approximate.

In some cases the form given is found only in some dialects of the language. Forms are given in native Latin orthographies unless otherwise noted. Cognates of the Eskimo language can be found in Michael Fortescue et al., 2010.[21] Cognates of the Aleut language can be found in Knut Bergsland, 1997.[15] Persons: common meaning Aleut Proto-Eskimo Sirenik Siberian Yupik Alutiiq Yup'ik Seward Inupiaq Qawiaraq Malimiutun North Slope Uummarmiutun Siglitun Inuinnaqtun Natsilik Kivalliq Aivilik North Baffin South Baffin Nunavik Labrador Inuttut North Greenlandic West Greenlandic East Greenlandic Persons Boy hlax *aleqa nukeɫpegaẋ nukaɫpegaq nukaɫpiaq nukaɫpiaq nugatpiaq nugatpiaq nukatpiaq nukatpiaq nukatpiaq nukatpiraq nukatpiaq nukatpiaq nukatpiaq nukappiaq nukappiaq nukappiaq nukappiaq nukappiak nukappiaq nukappiraq nugappiaq Daughter *paniɣ panex panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik panik Family/Relative ilaanux̂ *ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila ila Girl ayaĝaadax̂ *nǝvi(a)ʁc(ǝɣ)a- náẋserráẋ neveghsaq neviarcaq niaqsaaʁruk niaqsiaʁruk niviaqsiaʁruk niviaqsiaʁruk niviakkaq niviaqsiraq niviaqhiaq niviaqhiaq niviakkiaq niviaqsiaq niviaqsaaq niviaqsiaq niviatsiaq niviatsiak niviarhiaq niviarsiaraq niiarsiaq (Grand)father adax̂/taatax̂ *ata *ata-ata ata ata ata aata ata/ava ata/ava aapa/taata aapa aapa/ata aappak/ataatak aappak ataata ataata ataata ataata ataata ataata ataata ataata ataataq alaala Human being (Shaman word's) taĝu taʁu tarex taghu taru taru tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau tau taa taa Husband ugi *uɣi uga ugwik wik wii ui ui ui ui ui ui ui ui ui ui ui ui ui uik ui ui uviq Man tayaĝux̂ *aŋu-nt angeta angun angun angun angun angun angun angun angun angun angun angut angut angut anguti anguti anguti angutik angut angut tikkaq Mother anax̂ *ana *ana-ana nana naa/ana aana aana aaga aaga aaka aaka aaka amaamak/aana amaamak/anaana anaana anaana anaana anaana anaana anaana anaana anaana anaanaq annivik Mother-in-law *caki saka saki caki cakiq sagi chagi saki saki hakigaq saki haki haki hakigaq saki saki saki saki sakik haki saki saqiq/sagiq Older brother (of female) huyux̂ *aNǝ-LГun anta aningak anngaq anngaq ani ani ani ani ani aniraaluk ani ani ani ani ani ani ani anik ani ani ani Older sister (of male) uhngix *aleqa nuskit alqaq aɫqaq aliraq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqaq aliqannaq angajuk angajuk angajuk aliqa aleqaq alara Person anĝaĝinax̂ *inguɣ jux yuk suk yuk/cuk inuk inuk iñuk iñuk iñuk inuk inuk inuk inuk inuk inuk inuk inuk inuk inuk inuk iik Son *iʁni-ʁ irnex ighneq irneq irneq irniq irniq irñiq irñiq irñiq irniq irniq irniq irniq irniq irniq irniq irniq innik irniq erneq irniq Wife ayagax̂ *nuLiaq nucix nuliiq nuliq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq nuliak nuliaq nuliaq nuliaq Woman ayaĝax̂ *aʁnaq arnax arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq arnaq annak arnaq arnaq nuliakkaaq Young brother (of female) kingii *nukaq ungjex uyughaq uyuwaq uyuraq nukaq nukaq nukaaluk nukaaluk nukaq nukaq nukaq nukaq mukaq nukaq nukaq nukaq nukaq nukak nukaq nukaq nukaq Young sister (of male) uhngix *nayak najex nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak nayak najak najak najak najak najaatsuk najak najak najak Personal Pronouns: There are two types of pronouns in Eskimo- Aleut: Independent Pronouns and Pronominal Pronouns.

Pronouns in relation to Nouns: In Eskimo-Aleut, singular, dual and plural nouns are marked by inflectional suffixes, and if they are possessed the number marker is followed by pronominal suffixes that specify the (human) possessor. There are no genders in the Eskimo–Aleut languages, and this can be seen in the 4 persons: my, your, his/her, his/her own.[22][23] 'His/her own' specifies ownership in contrast with 'his/her' that does not.

E.g., his house versus his own house. Pronouns in relation to Verbs: Aleut uses independent pronouns, instead of pronominal marking on verbs. Eskimo, on the other hand has 4 persons and 3 numbers marked by pronominal suffixes. common meaning Aleut Proto-Eskimo Sirenik Siberian Yupik Alutiiq Yup'ik Seward Inupiaq Qawiaraq Malimiutun North Slope Uummarmiutun Siglitun Inuinnaqtun Natsilik Kivalliq Aivilik North Baffin South Baffin Nunavik Labrador Inuttut North Greenlandic West Greenlandic East Greenlandic Independent pronouns 1st Person Sg ting *vi menga hwanga w'iinga w'iinga wanga uanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvanga uvaqa uvak uanga uanga uara 2nd Person Sg txin *ǝɫ-vǝn-t ɫpi ɫpet eɫpet eɫpet ivlin ilvin ilvich ilvich ilvik ilvit ilvit ivrit/itvin igvin/idvin igvit ivvit ivvit ivvit iffit ihhit/i'lit iɫɫit ittit 3rd Person Sg ilaa/uda *ǝɫ-ŋa *una langa/una lnga/una elen/una elii/una ilaa/una ilaa/una ilaa/una ilaa/una ilaa/una ilaa/una una una una una una una una una una una una 1st Person Pl (dual) tingix *vik hwagakuk w'iingakuk w'iingakuk waguk uaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk uvaguk 2nd Person Pl (dual) txidix *ǝɫ-ptek ɫpetek eɫpetek eɫpetek iliptik iliptik iliptik iliptik iliptik iliptik iliptik iliptik iliptik iliptik ilissik ilittik ilittik ilittik 1st Person Pl (plural) tingin(s) *vit mengaketa hwagakuta w'iingakuta w'iingakuta wagut uagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uvagut uagut uagut uangit 2nd Person Pl Reflexive (dual) txichix *ǝɫ-vcet ɫpisi ɫpesi eɫpici eɫpeci ilipsi ilipsi ilivsi ilivsi iliffi ilipsi iliffi iliphi iliphi ilipsi ilissi ilitsi ilitsi ilitsi ilissi ilissi ilitsi 3rd Person Plural Reflexive (dual) 'thyself/themselves/itself' ilaan(s)/udan(s) *ǝɫ-ŋat *ukuat langwi/uket lngit/ukut elita/ukut eliita/ukut ilaat/ugua ilaat/ugua ilaat/ukua ilaat/ukua ilaat/ukua ilaat/ukua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ukua/ukkua ugua/ukkua common meaning Aleut Proto-Eskimo Sirenik Siberian Yupik Alutiiq Yup'ik Seward Inupiaq Qawiaraq Malimiutun North Slope Uummarmiutun Siglitun Inuinnaqtun Natsilik Kivalliq Aivilik North Baffin South Baffin Nunavik Labrador Inuttut North Greenlandic West Greenlandic East Greenlandic Pronominal Suffixes 1st Person Sg (affixes) -kuq *tua *kuq -jua -tua -tua -tua, -runga -runga -runga -runga -runga -yunga, -yuami -yunga -yunga -runga -yunga -junga -junga -junga -junga -junga -junga -punga,sunga -pua, lua 2nd Person Sg (affixes) -kuxt *it -jet -ten -ten -ten -rutin -rutin -rutin -rutin -rutin -yutin -yutin -rutit -yutit -jutit -jutit -jutit -jutit -jutit -hutit -sutit -sulit 3rd Person Sg (affixes) -kux *tuq -jix -tuq -tuq -tuq -ruq -ruq -ruq -ruq -ruq -yuaq -yuq -ruq -yuq -yuq -juq -juq -juq -juk -huq -soq, poq -tuq, puq 1st Person Sg Possessive (affixes) -ng *nga -ka/qa -ka/qa -ka/qa -ka/qa -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga/ra -ga -ga/ra -ga/ra -nga/ra 2nd Person Sg Possessive (affixes) -n *in -n -n -n -n -n -n -n -n -n -n -t -t -t -t -it -it -it -it -t -t -t 3rd PersonSgPossessive (affixes) -(n)gan *ngan -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a -nga/a 3rd Person Sg Object (affixes) -kuu/qaa *jaa/kaa -jaa/kaa -taa/kaa -taa/kaa -taa/kaa -raa/gaa -raa/gaa -raa/gaa -raa/gaa -yaa/gaa -yaa/gaa -raa/gaa -yaa/gaa -jaa/gaa -jaa/gaa -jaa/gaa -jaa/gaa -jaa/gaa -jaa/gaa -jaa/gaa -saa/gaa -laa/ngaa common meaning Aleut Proto-Eskimo Sirenik Siberian Yupik Alutiiq Yup'ik Seward Inupiaq Qawiaraq Malimiutun North Slope Uummarmiutun Siglitun Inuinnaqtun Natsilik Kivalliq Aivilik North Baffin South Baffin Nunavik Labrador Inuttut North Greenlandic West Greenlandic East Greenlandic Interrogative Pronouns Who (Interrogate) kiin *kina kiin kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kina kia What (Interrogate) alqux *caŋu sangǝ̄́ca sangwa/suna cacaq cacaq/tcauna suna sua sua suna/suva huna suna huna huna huna suna kisu suna suna suna kihu suna/sua kisik When (Past/future) (Interrogate) qanaayam *qanga/qaku qanga/qaku qavnga/kaku qangwaq/qaku qangvaq/qaku qanga/qagun qanga/qagu qaglaan/qaku qanga/qaku qanga/qaku qanga/qakugu qanga/qakugu qanga/qakugu qanga/qakugu qanga/qakugu qanga/qakugu qanga/qakugu qanga/qakugu kanga/kakugu qanga/qakugu qanga/qaqugu qanga/qara Where (Interrogate) qaataa *nani nani nani/naa/sami nama/nani nani/cami naung/nani naunga/nani sumi/nani/naung sumi/nani/naung humi/nani/nau sumi/nani/naung humi/nani/naung humi/naung nani/naung sumi/nauk nani/nauk nami/nani nami/nani nami/nani humi sumi sumi Why (Interrogate) alqul(-usaal) *caŋu sangaami sangami cin/caluni ciin/caluni suami suami summan/suvataa summan/suvataa huuq suuq huuq huuq huuq suuq suuq sungmat sumut summat huuq suuq suuq Body Parts: common meaning Aleut Proto-Eskimo Sirenik Siberian Yupik Alutiiq Yup'ik Seward Inupiaq Qawiaraq Malimiutun North Slope Uummarmiutun Siglitun Inuinnaqtun Natsilik Kivalliq Aivilik North Baffin South Baffin Nunavik Labrador Inuttut North Greenlandic West Greenlandic East Greenlandic Body parts Anus idiĝasix̂ *ǝtǝʁ tex eteq eteq teq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itiq itik itiq iteq iliq? *kiaavik Arm chuyux̂ *taɫi- jaqex taɫiq taɫiq taɫiq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq taliq talik taliq taleq taliq Belly xax *aqja aqii aqyaq aqsaq aqsaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq aqiaq akiak aqiaq aqajaq ariaq Blood aamaaxs *aruɣ acex/arux awk auk auk awk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk auk aak aak Calf tugaadix̂ *nakacuɣ-na- nakasegnax nakasugnaq nakacugnaq nakacugnaq nakasungnaq nakasungnaq nakasrungnaq nakasungnaq nakahungnaq nakasungnaq nakahungnaq nakahungnaq nakahungnaq nakasungnaq nakasungnaq nakasunnaq nakasunnaq nakasunnak nakahungnaq nakasunnaaq Ear tutusix̂ *ciɣunt siigeta sigun cuun ciun siun siun siun siun hiun siun hiun hiut hiut siut siuti siuti siuti siutik hiut siut siit/*tusaat Eye dax̂ *irǝ eca iya ii/iingaq ii/iingaq izi izi iri iri iyi iyi iyi iri iyi iji iji iji iji ijik ihi isi ili Eyelash dam qaxsaa *qǝmǝʁja- qemerjax/seqpix qemeryaq/siqpik qemeryaq/ciqpik qemeryaq/ciqpek qimiriaq/siqpiq qimiriaq/siqpik qimiriaq/siqpik qimiriaq/siqpik qimiriaq/hiqpik qimiriaq/siqpik qimiriaq/hiqpik qimiriaq/hiqpik qimiriaq/hiqpik qimiriaq/siqpik qimiriaq/siqpik qimiriaq/siqpik qimiriaq/siqpik kimigiak/sippik qimiriaq/hiqpik qimeriaq/serpik qimiiaq/sirpik Finger atx̂ux̂ *ińura- nurax yughaq suaraq yuaraq inugaq inugaq iñugaq iñugaq iñugaq inugaq inugaq inugaq inugaq inugaq inugaq inugaq inugaq inugak inugaq inuaq iiaq Fingernail *kikra kiikiak kigiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kikiak kigiak Foot kitax̂ *itǝɣ-(a-) ítegá itegaq itaq itgaq itigak itigaq isigak isigak ihigak itigak itigak ihigak itigak itigak isigak itigak itigak itigak ihigak isigak Hair iimlix *ńujaq nujǝẋ/jujǝẋ nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nuyaq nujaq nujaq nujaq nujaq nujak nujaq nujaq nujaq Hand chax̂ *arɣa ácxeẋ aykaq aikaq aikaq agrak agraq argak argak argak adjgak *aygak algak argak adjgak aggak aggak aggak aggak aggak aghak assak attak Head kamĝix̂ *ńarǝ-qu- iiceqeẋ naasquq/nayquq nasquq nacquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niaquq niakuk niaquq niaqoq suuniq Heart kanuux̂ *uŋ-uma- ungevata unguvan unguwan unguvan uumman uumman uumman uumman uumman uumman uumman uummat uummat uummat uummati uummati uummati uummatik uummat uummat iimmat Knee chidiĝix *ciɣǝr-qu sigesqeẋ serquq cisquq ciisquq siitquq siitquq siitquq siitquq hiitquq siitquq hiitquq hiitquq hiitquq siiqquq siiqquq siiqquq siirquq siikkuk hiiqquq siiqqoq Navel qiihliqdax̂ *qacaɫǝʁ qaɫasex qasaɫeq qaɫaciq qaɫaciq qalaziq qalachiq qalasriq qalasiq qalahiq qalasiq qalahiq qalahiq qalahiq qalasiq qalasiq qalasiq qalasiq kalasik qalahiq qalaseq Nose angusix̂ *qǝŋa- qengax qengaq qengaq qengaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq qingaq kingak qingaq qingaq qingaq Animals: common meaning Aleut Proto-Eskimo Sirenik Siberian Yupik Alutiiq Yup'ik Seward Inupiaq Qawiaraq Malimiutun North Slope Uummarmiutun Siglitun Inuinnaqtun Natsilik Kivalliq Aivilik North Baffin South Baffin Nunavik Labrador Inuttut North Greenlandic West Greenlandic East Greenlandic Animals Bowhead whale/whale alax̂ *aʁvǝʁ arvex arveq arweq/arruq arveq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq arviq avvik arviq arfeq arpiq Canada Goose laĝix̂ *lǝqlǝʁ leẋɫeẋ leghɫeq neqɫeq neqɫeq lirliq lirliq lirliq nirliq nirliq nirliq nirliq nirliq nirliq lirliq/nirliq nirliq nirliq nirliq nillik nirliq nerɫeq nirtiq Caribou itx̂aygix̂ *tuŋtu tumta tungtu tuntu tuntu tuttu tuttu tuttu tuttu tuttu tuktu tuktu tuktu tuktu tuktu tuktu tuttu tuttu tuttuk tuktu tuttu tuttuq Dog sabaakax̂ *qikmi- qepeneẋ qikmiq qiqmiq/piugta qimugta qimmiq qimmiq qipmiq qimmiq qimmiq qimmiq qinmiq qingmiq/qimmiq qingmiq/qimmiq qimmiq qimmiq qimmiq qimmiq kimmik qimmiq qimmeq qimmiq Fish qax̂ *ǝqaɫuɣ iqeɫex iqaɫuk iqaɫuk iqaɫuk iraluk iraluk iqaluk iqaluk qaluk iqaluk iqaluk iqaluk iqaluk iqaluk iqaluk iqaluk iqaluk ikaluk iqaluk eqaluk iqalik Groundhog/Arctic squirrel sixsix *sigsik siksix sikik cikik cikik siksrik chiksrik siksrik siksrik siksrik siksik hikhik hiksik hikhik siksik siksi sitsik sitsik sitsik highik sissi sitsiq Killer Whale aglux̂ *aʁɫuɣ arɫux? arɫuk aqɫuk arɫuk aarlu aarlu aarlu aarlu aarlu aarlu aarlu aarluk aarluk aarluk aarluk aarluk aarluk aalluk aarluk aarɫuk aartiq? Louse kitux̂ *kumaɣ kúmex kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak kumak Oldsquaw Duck aagix̂ *aXaŋǝ-liʁ aahaangalex aahaangwliq ahangkiluk aahaangiiq/aahaaliq aa'aangiq aa'aangiq aahaaliq aahaaliq ahaangiq ahaangiq aahaalliq ahaangiq ahaangiq ahaangiq ahaangiq ahaangiq ahaangiq ahaangik ahaangiq ahaangiq ahaangiq Ptarmigan aĝdiikax̂ *aqărɣiʁ aqergex aqargiiq/aqarriq aqasgiiq aqazgiiq arargiq arargiq aqargiq aqargiq aqaygiq aqiygiq aqilgiq aqirgiq/aqigriq aqidjgiq aqiggiq aqiggiq aqiggiq aqiggiq akiggik aqighiq aqisseq nagalaraq Swan qukingix̂ *quɣruɣ qerúmɫeráẋ quuk qugyuq qugyuq qugruk qugruk qugruk qugruk qugruk qugyuk qugyuk qugyuk qugyuk qugjuk qugjuk qujjuk qujjuk kutjuk qughuk qussuk qutsuk Other Nouns: common meaning Aleut Proto-Eskimo Sirenik Siberian Yupik Alutiiq Yup'ik Seward Inupiaq Qawiaraq Malimiutun North Slope Uummarmiutun Siglitun Inuinnaqtun Natsilik Kivalliq Aivilik North Baffin South Baffin Nunavik Labrador Inuttut North Greenlandic West Greenlandic East Greenlandic Other nouns And/also ama *amma ama/sama amahwa/aamta amleq/cama amleq/cama amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma amma aamma aamma Arrow *qaʁru qarceẋ ruuq ruuq qeruq qarruq qarruq qarruq qarruq qarruq qaryuq qaryuq qaryuq qaryuq qarjuq qarjuq qarjuk qajjuk katjuk qarhuq qarsoq qarliq Ash utxix̂ *aʁra arex aʁra araq araq arra arra arra arra arra arya arya arya arya arja arja arja ajja atjak arhaq arsaq arlaq Atmosphere/weather/out silan/slax̂ *cǝla siɫa sɫaa ɫa ciɫa/ella sila chila sila sila hila sila hila hila hila sila sila sila sila sila hila sila sila Breath angil *anǝʁ- anerte- anernaq anerneq anerneq anirniq anirniq aniqniq anirniq anirniq anirniq anirniq anirniq anirniq anirniq anirniq anirniq anirniq aninnik anirniq anerneq anirniq Cloud *nụvǝja nuiya nuwiya nuviya nuviya nuvuya nuvuya nuvuya nuvuya nuvuya nuvuja nuvujaq nuvujaq nuvujaq nuvujak nuvujaq nuiaq nuviaq Cook unagix̂ *ǝɣa ega ega ega ega iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga iga ega inga Cry/weep qidal *qiRă- qeje qeya qia qeya qia qia qia qia qia qia qia qia qia qia qia qia qia kia qia qia qia Dog barking qihlux *qiluɣ qelux qilugaq qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk qiluk kiluk qiluk qiluk qiliilaq Earth tanax̂ *luna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna nuna Feather haka *culuk silek siluk culuk culuk suluk chuluk suluk suluk huluk suluk huluk huluk huluk suluk suluk suluk suluk suluk huluk suluk siik Fire qignal *ǝknǝ- ekn'ex ekneq keneq keneq ikniq itniq ikniq igniq ingniq ingniq ingniq ingniq ingniq ingniq ingniq inniq inniq innik ingniq inneq igivattattiq Here it is! wa *uva hwa hwa w'a w'a uvvaa uvvaa uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uvva uhha uffa uppa Hilltop qayax̂ *qemi qemix qemiq qemiq qemiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq qimiq kimik qimiq qimeq qimiq House ulax̂ *ǝŋlu lu inglu englu englu iglu iglu iglu iglu iglu iglu iglu iglu iglu iglu iglu illu illu illuk iglu iɫɫu ittiq Hungry haagil *kajak kajex keek kaik kaik kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak kaak Kiss on nose/kiss qingul *kungik singeq singaq(-ghaqaa) cingaq cingaq kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik kunik Lake hanix̂ *taci-ʁ jajvex nayvaq nanwaq nanvaq navraq/teziq navraq/tachiq narvaq/tasriq narvaq/tasiq narvaq/tahiq nayvaq/tasiq nalvaq/tahiq narvaq/tahiq nagvaq/tahiq navvaq/tasiq navvaq/tasiq navvaq/tasiq navvaq/tasiq navvak/tasik nassak/tahiq nassak/taseq nattak/tasiq Load husix̂ *uci usa usi uci uci uzi uchi usri usi uhi usi uhi uhi uhi usi usi usi usi usik uhi usi usi Milk mulukax *emug, itug ituk/emunge ituk/emuk muk ituk immuk immuk immuk immuk ituk miluk miluk ituk immuk immuk immuk immuk immuk immuk immuk immuk immuk Name asax̂ *atǝʁ atex ateq ateq ateq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atiq atik atiq ateq aliq No nangaa *naaka *qaanga naaka naka/naah kaa ina/qanga naami/naagga qanngaq/naagga naumi/naakka naumi/naagga naggai naaggai imannaq iiq/naagga naung/naagga nauk/aakka aakka/naagga aukka/aggaq naggai/nauk aukang na'a/naagga naami/naagga iiqqii Price/Value akiisal *aki aka aki aki aki aki aki agi agi aki aki aki aki aki aki aki aki aki aki akik aki agiq Shaman qugaaĝix̂ *aŋalku- angekex angaɫkuq angaɫquq angaɫkuq angatkuq angatkuq angatkuq angatkuq angatkuq angatkuq angatkuq angatkuq angatkuq angakkuq angakkuq angakkuq angakkuq angakkuk angakkuq angakkoq angakkiq Ship, boat ayxaasix̂ *umi(r)a umax umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiaq umiak umiaq umiaq umiaq Sky inix̂ *qilaɣ qilex qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak qilak kilak qilak qilak qilak Smoke huyux̂s *puju pujex puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq puyuq pujuq pujuq pujuq pujuq pujuk pujuq pujuq pujuq Snow(flake) qaniigix̂ *qaniɣ qanix qanik qanik qaniq qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik qanik kanik qanik qanik qanik Star sdax̂ *umluria uvluriaq uvluriaq uvluriaq uvluriaq uvluriaq ubluriaq ubluriaq ubluriaq ubluriaq ubluriaq ulluriaq ulluriaq ulluriaq ullugiak ulluriaq ulloriaq utturiaq Sun/Day aĝadĝix̂ *ciqi-nǝʁ siqinex siqineq/mazaq ciqineq/masaq ciqineq/macaq siriniq/mazaq chiqiniq/machaq siqiñiq/masaq siqiñiq hiqiñiq siqiniq hiqiniq hiqiniq hiqiniq siqiniq siqiniq siqiniq siqiniq sikinik hiqiniq seqineq siirliq Tell a Story/Legend uniikal *uniɣ-paʁ- unircex ungikpaq unifkuaq unifkaraq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unipkaaq unikkaaq unikkaaq unikkaaq unikkaak unikkaaq unikkaaq unikkaaq Tent pulaatxix̂ *tupǝʁ tupex tupeq tuviq tuviq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupiq tupik tupiq tupeq tupiq To ask ahmat- *apete apet- apetaqa- apqar- apete- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apiri- apigi- apiri- aperi- apii- To urinate qaalux̂ **quʁ(r)ǝ- qux-teqex uraquq qure- qure- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- qui- kui- qui- qui- quvi- Tree/Wood *napar- napax napartuq napaq napa napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtuq napaaqtiq napaattuq napaattuk uqpik/napaaqtuq urpik/napaartoq urpik/napaartuq Water taangax̂ *ǝmǝʁ mex emeq meq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imiq imik imiq imeq imiq Wind achunal *anuqǝ anuqa anuqa anuqa anuqa anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anuri anugik anuri anori anirsiq Yes aang *aa/ii ii ii ii-i ii-i ii-i ii-i ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii aap ii Adjectives: common meaning Aleut Proto-Eskimo Sirenik Siberian Yupik Alutiiq Yup'ik Seward Inupiaq Qawiaraq Malimiutun North Slope Uummarmiutun Siglitun Inuinnaqtun Natsilik Kivalliq Aivilik North Baffin South Baffin Nunavik Labrador Inuttut North Greenlandic West Greenlandic East Greenlandic Adjectives Cold! Brrr! How cold! ababa *alaapaa alaapa alaappa alaappa alaappa alaappa alaappa alaappa alaappa ikkii ikkii ikkii ikkii ikkii ikkii ikkii ikkii ikkii Copper kanuuyax̂ **kanɣu-ja kanuje kanuya kanuyaq kanuyaq kannuuyaq kannuyaq kannuyaq kannguyaq kannuyaq kannuyaq kannuyaq kannuyaq kanuhaq kannujaq kannujaq kannujaq kanusaq kannujak kannussaq kanngussak kanngutsak Fat ignatul *quvi quginaẋ quginaq quili quvinaq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq quiniq kuinik quiniq quineq quiniq Grey hair qidaayux *qirʁǝʁ qircéreɫeẋ qiiq qiiq qiiq qiʁriq qirʁiq qirʁiq qirʁi qirʁiq qiyriq qiiq qiriq qiiq qiiq qiiq qiiq qiiq kiik qiiq qeeq qiiq Long adul *takǝ(v) takevaláẋ taakǝlʁi takequq takequq tagiruq tagiruq takiruq takiruq takiruq takiyuq takiyuq takiyuq takiyuq takijuq takijuq takijuq takijuq takijuk takihuuq takisooq/takivoq tagiliq Still/also/more ahlii *culi sali salin cali cali suli chuli suli suli huli suli huli huli huli suli suli suli suli suli huli suli suli Swell hums *puvet puvceqertéẋ puuvaaquq puge- puve- puit- puit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puvit- puik- puiq- White quhmax̂ *qătǝ-ʁ qetex qeteq qeteq qeter- qatiq qatiq qatiq qatiq qatiq qatiq qakuqtaq qaquqtaq qakuqtaq qakuqtaq qakuqtaq qakuqtaq qakutaq kakuttak qakuqtuq qaqortoq qaartiq Numbers: common meaning Aleut Proto-Eskimo Sirenik Siberian Yupik Alutiiq Yup'ik Seward Inupiaq Qawiaraq Malimiutun North Slope Uummarmiutun Siglitun Inuinnaqtun Natsilik Kivalliq Aivilik North Baffin South Baffin Nunavik Labrador Inuttut North Greenlandic West Greenlandic East Greenlandic Numbers 1 ataqan *ataʁu-ci- ateresex ataaziq atauciq/atuusiq atauciq atausiq atauchiq atausriq atausiq atauhiq atausiq atauhiq atauhiq atauhiq atausiq atausiq atausiq atausiq atausik atauhiq ataaseq alaasiq 2 aalax̂ *malǝʁu- malrug malghuk malluk malruk marluuk marluk malruk malruk malruk malruk malruuk malruuk malruuk marruuk marruuk marruuk maqruuk magguuk marluk marluk martut 3 qankun(-s) *pingajunt pingejug pingayut pingaun pingayun pingasut pingachut piñgasrut piñgasut piñgahut pingasut pingahut pingahut pingahut pingasut pingasut pingasut pingasut pingasut pingahut pingasut pingasit 4 siiching *cǝtama- sitamij sitamat staamat cetaman sitaman chitaman sisaman sisaman hihaman sitaman hitaman hihamat hitamat sitamat tisamat sitamat sitamat sitamat hihamat sisamat siamat 5 chaang *taɫiman tasímengíyi taɫimat taɫiman taɫiman tauliman taliman talliman talliman talliman talliman talliman tallimat tallimat tallimat tallimat tallimat tallimat tallimat taddimat tallimat tattimat 6 atuung *aʁvinelegh inglex aghvínelek arwinlgen arvinglegen arwinilik arwinilik itchaksrat itchaksat itchakhat arvinillik arvinillik arviniq arvinraq arviniqtut arviniliit pingasuujuqtut pingasuujurtut pingasuujuttut arhiniddit arfinillit arpiniit 10 hatix̂ *qulǝ(ŋ) qulex? qula qulin qula qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit qulit kulit qulit qulit qutit See also Proto-Eskimo language Proto-Eskimo–Aleut language Eskimology Notes ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.

(2017). "Eskimo–Aleut". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. ^ Cf. Fleming 1987:189. ^ "Due to the pejorative nature of the term 'Eskimo' in some locales, and the increasing preference for 'Unangan' as opposed to 'Aleut' in Alaska, this family may be alternately referred to as Inuit-Yupik-Unangan. The hyphenated term gives some sense of the variety of languages subsumed under this family label.

" Holton, Gary. 2012. Overview of Comparative Inuit-Yupik-Unangan. Retrieved 2013-11-18. ^ a b Kaplan, Lawrence (1984). McGary, Jane, ed. Inupiaq and the Schools - A Handbook for Teachers. Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. ^ "Ethnologue report for Yupik Sirenk", Ethnologue, Retrieved 2008-08-25. ^ "Alaska Native Languages – An Overview". Retrieved 2008-08-25. ^ a b c Jacobson, Steven (1984).

Central Yupik and the Schools - A Handbook for Teachers. Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. ^ a b Georg, Stefan; Vovin, Alexander (2005). "Review of Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic language family". John Benjamins Publishing Company. 22: 184–191. ^ Jan Henrik Holst, Einführung in die eskimo-aleutischen Sprachen. Buske Verlag ^ Mattissen, Johanna.

Dependent–Head Synthesis in Nivkh: A Contribution to a Typology of Polysynthesis p. 282. ISBN 90-272-2965-1 ^ Garry, Jane and Rubino, Carl R. Galvez, Facts about the World's Languages: An Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages pp. 842–844. ISBN 0-8242-0970-2 ^ Johns, Alana. "Derivational Morphology in Eskimo Aleut". Oxford University Press. ^ Johns, Alana. "Derivational Morphology in Eskimo-Aleut".

Oxford Journal Press. ^ Fortescue, Michael; Jacobson, Steven; Kaplan, Lawrence (2010). Comparative Eskimo Dictionary with Aleut Cognates. United States of America: Alaska Native Language Center. ^ a b c Bergsland, Knut (1997). Aleut Grammar: Unangam Tunuganaan Achixaasix̂. United States of America: Alaska Native Language Center. ^ Crowley, Terry; Bowern, Claire (2010). An Introduction to Historical Linguistics.

New York: Oxford University Press. ^ Miyaoka, Osahito (2012). A grammar of Central Alaskan Yupik (cay). Mouton Grammar Library. ^ Johns, Alana. "Derivational Morphology in Eskimo-Aleut". The Oxford Press. ^ Fortescue, Michael (1998). Language Relations Across Bering Strait: Reappraising the Archaeological and Linguistic Evidence. London: Bookcraft Ltd. ^ Fortescue, Michael. Language Relations Across Bering Strait: Reappraising the Archaeological and Linguistic Evidence.

London: Bookcraft Ltd. ^ Fortescue, Michael; Jacobson, Steven; Kaplan, Lawrence (2010). Comparative Eskimo Dictionary with Aleut Cognates. United states of America: Alaska Native Language Center. ^ Booij, Geert; Lehmann, Christian; Mugdan, Joachim; Skopeteas, Stavros (2004). Morphologie / Morphology. Walter de Gruyter. ^ Gutman, Alejandro; Avanzati, Beatriz (2013). "Eskimo-Aleut Languages". Bibliography Bergsland, Knut (1997).

Aleut Grammar: Unangam Tunuganaan Achixaasix̂. United States of America: Alaska Native Language Center. Bernet, John W. 1974. An Anthology of Aleut, Eskimo, and Indian Literature of Alaska in English Translation. Fairbanks, Alaska. Booij, Geert; Lehmann, Christian; Mugdan, Joachim; Skopeteas, Stavros (2004). Morphologie / Morphology. Walter de Gruyter. Conference on Eskimo Linguistics, and Eric P.

Hamp. 1976. Papers on Eskimo and Aleut Linguistics. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. Crowley, Terry; Bowern, Claire (2010). An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press. Dumond, Don E. 1965. On Eskaleutian Linguistics, Archaeology, and Prehistory. Fleming, Harold C. 1987. "Towards a definitive classification of the world's languages." Diachronica 4.1/2:159-223. Fortescue, Michael D.

1984. Some Problems Concerning the Correlation and Reconstruction of Eskimo and Aleut Mood Markers. København: Institut for Eskimologi, Københavns Universitet. ISBN 87-87874-10-5 Fortescue, Michael D., Steven A. Jacobson, and Lawrence D. Kaplan. 1994. Comparative Eskimo Dictionary with Aleut Cognates. Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks. ISBN 1-55500-051-7 Fortescue, Michael.

1998. Language Relations across Bering Strait: Reappraising the Archaeological and Linguistic Evidence. London and New York: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-70330-3 Greenberg, Joseph H. 2000. Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic Language Family, Volume 1: Grammar. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Greenberg, Joseph H. 2002. Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic Language Family, Volume 2: Lexicon.

Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Gutman, Alejandro; Avanzati, Beatriz (2013). "Eskimo-Aleut Languages" Holst, Jan Henrik 2005. Einführung in die eskimo-aleutischen Sprachen. Hamburg: Buske. Johns, Alana. "Derivational Morphology in Eskimo-Aleut". The Oxford Press. Marsh, Gordon H. 1956. The Linguistic Divisions of the Eskimo–Aleut Stock. Miyaoka, Osahito (2012). A grammar of Central Alaskan Yupik (cay).

Mouton Grammar Library. Swift, Mary D. 2004. Time in Child Inuktitut: A Developmental Study of an Eskimo–Aleut Language. Studies on Language Acquisition 24. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-018120-7 External links Alaska Native Language Center v t e Eskimo–Aleut languages and dialects Aleut Aleut Inuit1 Greenlandic Kalaallisut Tunumiit Inuktun Inuinnaqtun Kangiryuarmiutun Inuktitut North Baffin Inuttitut Inupiaq (Iñupiaq Braille) Qawiaraq Uummarmiutun Inuvialuktun Aivilik Kangiryuarmiutun Kivalliq Netsilik Siglitun Utkuhiksalik Yupik Alutiiq Central Alaskan Yugtun Nunivak Cup'ig Chevak Cup’ik Central Siberian Naukan Sirenik2 See also Proto-Eskimo Proto-Eskimo-Aleut Inuktitut syllabics (writing system) Inuit phonology Inuit grammar Kaktovik Inupiaq numerals Yugtun script Italics indicate extinct languages 1: The Inuit language 'family' is a continuum of dialects 2: Some linguists classify Sirenik as under a separate branch v t e List of primary language families Africa Afro-Asiatic Austronesian Khoe Kx'a Niger–Congo Nilo-Saharan? Tuu Mande? Songhay? Ijaw? Ubangian? Kadu? Isolates Bangime Hadza Jalaa Sandawe Kwadi? Laal? Shabo? Sign languages Arab BANZSL French Lasima Tanzanian Others Europe and Asia Afro-Asiatic Ainu Austroasiatic Austronesian Chukotko-Kamchatkan Dravidian Eskimo–Aleut Great Andamanese Hmong–Mien Hurro-Urartian Indo-European Japonic Kartvelian Koreanic Mongolic Northeast Caucasian Northwest Caucasian Ongan Sino-Tibetan Tai–Kadai Tungusic Turkic Tyrsenian Uralic Yeniseian Yukaghir Dené–Yeniseian? Altaic? Austronesian–Ongan? Austro-Tai? Sino-Austronesian? Digaro? Kho-Bwa? Siangic? Miji? Vasconic? Isolates Basque Burushaski Elamite Hattic Kusunda Nihali Nivkh Sumerian Hruso? Miju? Puroik? Sign languages BANZSL French German Japanese Swedish Chinese Indo-Pakistani Arab Chiangmai–Bangkok Others New Guinea and the Pacific Amto–Musan Arafundi Austronesian Baining Border (Tami) Bulaka River Central Solomons Doso–Turumsa East Bird's Head – Sentani East Geelvink Bay Eastern Trans-Fly Fas Goilalan Kiwaian Kwomtari Lakes Plain Left May Lower Mamberamo Mairasi Mai Brat? Monumbo Namla–Tofanma Nimboran North Bougainville Pahoturi Pauwasi Piawi Ramu–Lower Sepik Senagi Sepik Skou South Bougainville Teberan Tor–Kwerba Torricelli Trans–New Guinea West Papuan Yam Yawa Yuat Trans-Fly–Bulaka River? Yele – West New Britain? Isolates Abinomn Busa Kaure Kol Kuot Porome Pyu Taiap Yalë Abun? Amberbaken? Dem? Hattam? Isirawa? Lepki? Kapori? Kosare? Massep? Murkim? Pawaia? Sulka? Waia? Sign languages Hawai'i Sign Language Others Australia Arnhem/Macro-Gunwinyguan Bunuban Darwin River Eastern Daly Eastern Tasmanian Garawan Iwaidjan Jarrakan Mirndi Northern Tasmanian Northeastern Tasmanian Nyulnyulan Pama–Nyungan Southern Daly Tangkic Wagaydyic Western Daly Western Tasmanian Worrorran Yangmanic (Wardaman) Isolates Giimbiyu Malak-Malak Marrgu Tiwi Wagiman North America Algic Alsea Caddoan Chimakuan Chinookan Chumashan Comecrudan Coosan Eskimo–Aleut Iroquoian Kalapuyan Keresan Maiduan Muskogean Na-Dene Palaihnihan Plateau Penutian Pomoan Salishan Shastan Siouan Tanoan Tsimshianic Utian Uto-Aztecan Wakashan Wintuan Yokutsan Yukian Yuman–Cochimí Dené–Yeniseian? Hokan? Penutian? Isolates Chimariko Haida Karuk Kutenai Seri Siuslaw Takelma Timucua Waikuri Washo Yana Yuchi Zuni Sign languages Inuit (Inuiuuk) Plains Sign Talk Others Mesoamerica Chibchan Jicaquean Lencan Mayan Misumalpan Mixe–Zoque Oto-Manguean Tequistlatecan Totonacan Uto-Aztecan Xincan Totozoquean? Isolates Cuitlatec Huave Tarascan/Purépecha Sign languages Plains Sign Talk Mayan Others South America Arawakan Arauan Araucanian Arutani–Sape Aymaran Barbacoan Boran Borôroan Cahuapanan Cariban Catacaoan Chapacuran Charruan Chibchan Choco Chonan Guaicuruan Guajiboan Jê/Gê Harákmbut–Katukinan Jirajaran Jivaroan Kariri Katembri–Taruma Mascoian Matacoan Maxakalian Nadahup Nambikwaran Otomákoan Pano-Tacanan Peba–Yaguan Purian Quechuan Piaroa–Saliban Ticuna–Yuri Timotean Tiniguan Tucanoan Tupian Uru–Chipaya Witotoan Yabutian Yanomaman Zamucoan Zaparoan Chimuan? Esmeralda–Yaruro? Hibito–Cholón? Lule–Vilela? Macro-Jê? Tequiraca–Canichana? Isolates (extant in 2000) Aikanã? Alacalufan Andoque? Camsá Candoshi Chimane Chiquitano Cofán? Fulniô Guató Hodï/Joti Irantxe? Itonama Karajá Krenak Kunza Leco Maku-Auari of Roraima Movima Mura-Pirahã Nukak? Ofayé Puinave Huaorani/Waorani Trumai Urarina Warao Yamana Yuracaré See also Language isolates Unclassified languages Creoles Pidgins Mixed languages Artificial languages List of sign languages Families with more than 30 languages are in bold.

Families in italics have no living members. Authority control GND: 4600845-7 SUDOC: 027834182 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eskimo–Aleut_languages&oldid=803794102"

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Download: MP3 format (7.76 Mb) Mala Visits His Grandparents My social studies teacher says our Elders are our most important teachers. So, she gave us this for homework: "Ask an Elder to explain your kinship names." She wants me to find out why we called some people, angak (uncle) and some people najatsaq (girl cousin). I decided to ask my anaanatsiaq, that is, my maternal grandmother for help. This wasn't hard to do, because I always go to see her and Grandfather every day.

They just live down the road. I usually stop in on the way home from school to see how they're doing, and if they need any help. That's my job as their grandson. Plus, my grandmother makes the best bannock in Salluit. Today, coming up the snowy street, I follow the skid marks left by a speeding fourwheeler. Soon, I see the usual smoke rising from the metal chimney of their onestorey, wood-frame house.

A big, spotted husky comes bounding around the back of their oil tank. She wags her tail at me, trailed by her fat pup who jumps up, pawing my left knee. I shoo them off and enter the house. Grandmother greets me affectionately, which makes me feel good as always. Grandfather looks up from his net making and says: "Grandson, what did you do today?" "Ah, just the usual school stuff, except that my new social studies teacher wants me to ask you something.

" "Oh, what's that?" asks Grandmother, looking a bit puzzled, as she offers me a steaming mug of tea and a big slice of her just-baked bannock. The slice is still warm, so the blueberry jam I smear over it melts into tasty perfection. Trying to talk with my mouth full, I manage: "She wants you to explain my kinship names. Everybody in class has to ask an Elder to explain them." Grandmother nods as she picks up a sealskin mitt and continues her sewing.

"Let's start right here with your maternal grandfather. He is your mother's father (ataatatsiaq). I am your maternal grandmother (anaanatsiaq), because I am your mother's mother. Your father is ataata and your mother is anaana. Ittuq, your older brother, is angajuk. Quppaq, your little brother, is nukaq. Tunu, your sister, is naja. "All your mother's sisters and her girl cousins are your maternal aunts (ajakuluk)," she adds, getting up to offer me more bannock.

"All your mother's brothers and her boy cousins are your maternal uncles (angak)." I am making mental notes of all of this and trying to keep all the relationships straight in my head, but it's a lot to learn. Fortunately, just then, I am rescued by the telephone. Grandfather puts down the net he has been patiently knotting and gets up to answer. It's your ataata, Mala. He wants you to go home and help him check the fishing nets.

" "See you tomorrow," I say, as I put on my boots, reach for my parka and make for the door. The next day, I stop by on my way home from school as usual. Grandfather has gone off on his snowmobile, but Grandmother is rolling out pie dough on a piece of wax paper she has spread over the checkered oilcloth covering her kitchen table. She dusts the flour from her hands and goes to get me my usual after-school snack of bannock and tea.

"You know, we'd better finish your social studies project today, Mala. Yesterday, we never did get to your father's side of the family." "I know. Guess I should make some notes," I say, reaching into my backpack for a pen and some paper. "It's a bit more complicated than I thought, and I keep getting the names mixed up." Grandmother smiles knowingly and begins: "Your father's father is your paternal grandfather (ataatatsiaq).

Your father's mother is your paternal grandmother (aana). All your father's sisters and his girl cousins are your paternal aunts (atsa). And all your father's brothers and his boy cousins are your paternal uncles (akkak)." "What about my father's brother's children?" I ask. "Qatak (cousin). Just use the word qatak. And here, what you call these paternal cousins depends on whether you are male or female.

Let's use you. You're a boy, so all your uncles and aunts' sons are your qatak. All your uncles and aunts' daughters are your najatsaq." "What does my sister, Tunu, call her boy cousins?" I ask. "For a girl, all her paternal uncles and aunts' sons are her aniksaq. All their daughters are her qatak." Grandmother begins kneading the dough into a flat shape. Picking up a knife to shape it for the waiting tin plate, she says: "And the most important of all is the person who helped your mother when you were being born.

She's your arnaqutik. She encourages you, and you're the pride of her heart, especially when you do something for the first time, or catch your first animal! A girl calls her her sanaji." I thought hard. It all seemed confusing again. "But, Grandmother," I ask, the qallunaaqs, not my cousins, but the non-Aboriginal people. We call them qallunaaqs. "They don't seem to use as many of these terms." Grandmother looks up from her pie.

"Qallunaaqs (non-Aboriginal people) are more particular about using a name to indicate whether someone is a boy or a girl. Their names like Annie, Mary and Susie are always used for girls. Johnny, Tommy and Bobby, for example, are always for boys. But, Mala is your name. It is also the name of your ajakuluk (maternal aunt) who's a woman. And it's important when you speak of your ajakuluk that you refer to her correctly.

These terms are an important part of respecting our family." "Okay. I think I'm getting it." "Can I warm up your tea?"

Hazel Gordon

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